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MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs: prospects in diagnostics and therapy of cancer.

Hauptman N, Glavac D - Radiol Oncol (2013)

Bottom Line: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases.There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools.This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases. Currently, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are being pursued as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic tools in cancer, since their expression profiling is able to distinguish different cancer types and classify their sub-types.

Conclusions: There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools. This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation. Research is directed in development of useful markers for diagnosis and prognosis in cancer and in developing new RNA-based cancer therapies, of which some are already in clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic presentation of ncRNAs biogenesis.
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f1-rado-47-04-311: Schematic presentation of ncRNAs biogenesis.

Mentions: RNA used to be considered the messenger between the gene and the protein encoded by this gene.2,3 The minority of the transcripts are protein coding (1.5%), and the rest used to be referred as “dark matter”, now known to be the ncRNA transcripts. Recent transcriptional analyses of genome estimate that ncRNA sequences are the most transcribed ones.4,5 The group of ncRNAs is quite diverse and complex. It is divided into ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), micro-RNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) (Figure 1).6


MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs: prospects in diagnostics and therapy of cancer.

Hauptman N, Glavac D - Radiol Oncol (2013)

Schematic presentation of ncRNAs biogenesis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814275&req=5

f1-rado-47-04-311: Schematic presentation of ncRNAs biogenesis.
Mentions: RNA used to be considered the messenger between the gene and the protein encoded by this gene.2,3 The minority of the transcripts are protein coding (1.5%), and the rest used to be referred as “dark matter”, now known to be the ncRNA transcripts. Recent transcriptional analyses of genome estimate that ncRNA sequences are the most transcribed ones.4,5 The group of ncRNAs is quite diverse and complex. It is divided into ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), micro-RNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) (Figure 1).6

Bottom Line: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases.There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools.This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases. Currently, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are being pursued as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic tools in cancer, since their expression profiling is able to distinguish different cancer types and classify their sub-types.

Conclusions: There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools. This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation. Research is directed in development of useful markers for diagnosis and prognosis in cancer and in developing new RNA-based cancer therapies, of which some are already in clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus