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Insights from a chimpanzee adipose stromal cell population: opportunities for adult stem cells to expand primate functional genomics.

Pfefferle LW, Wray GA - Genome Biol Evol (2013)

Bottom Line: Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution.In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates.By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Duke University.

ABSTRACT
Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling.

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Pluripotency insights. (A) Brightfield image of adipocytes after 14 days of differentiation depicting the nucleus (blue: Mayer’s hematoxylin) and lipid droplets (red: Oil Red O). (B) Schematic of ASC differentiation into adipocytes, modified from Cawthorn et al. (2012). (C) Relative age of cell lines in this study measured by passage number and estimated population doubling level (ePDL).
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evt148-F4: Pluripotency insights. (A) Brightfield image of adipocytes after 14 days of differentiation depicting the nucleus (blue: Mayer’s hematoxylin) and lipid droplets (red: Oil Red O). (B) Schematic of ASC differentiation into adipocytes, modified from Cawthorn et al. (2012). (C) Relative age of cell lines in this study measured by passage number and estimated population doubling level (ePDL).

Mentions: A hallmark of stem cells is pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers. Although the ability of ASCs to self-renew and differentiate into ectodermal lineages in vivo has not been definitively established (Cawthorn et al. 2012), these cells can be used to investigate many different cell types in culture. We successfully differentiated Clint’s ASCs into mature adipocytes in vitro using a cocktail of adipocyte differentiation media. These cells contain prominent lipid droplets (fig. 4A), a marker of mature adipocytes, here visualized by Oil Red O staining. Although this result does not confirm pluripotency for chimpanzee ASCs, it does demonstrate their ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages.Fig. 4.—


Insights from a chimpanzee adipose stromal cell population: opportunities for adult stem cells to expand primate functional genomics.

Pfefferle LW, Wray GA - Genome Biol Evol (2013)

Pluripotency insights. (A) Brightfield image of adipocytes after 14 days of differentiation depicting the nucleus (blue: Mayer’s hematoxylin) and lipid droplets (red: Oil Red O). (B) Schematic of ASC differentiation into adipocytes, modified from Cawthorn et al. (2012). (C) Relative age of cell lines in this study measured by passage number and estimated population doubling level (ePDL).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814206&req=5

evt148-F4: Pluripotency insights. (A) Brightfield image of adipocytes after 14 days of differentiation depicting the nucleus (blue: Mayer’s hematoxylin) and lipid droplets (red: Oil Red O). (B) Schematic of ASC differentiation into adipocytes, modified from Cawthorn et al. (2012). (C) Relative age of cell lines in this study measured by passage number and estimated population doubling level (ePDL).
Mentions: A hallmark of stem cells is pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers. Although the ability of ASCs to self-renew and differentiate into ectodermal lineages in vivo has not been definitively established (Cawthorn et al. 2012), these cells can be used to investigate many different cell types in culture. We successfully differentiated Clint’s ASCs into mature adipocytes in vitro using a cocktail of adipocyte differentiation media. These cells contain prominent lipid droplets (fig. 4A), a marker of mature adipocytes, here visualized by Oil Red O staining. Although this result does not confirm pluripotency for chimpanzee ASCs, it does demonstrate their ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages.Fig. 4.—

Bottom Line: Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution.In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates.By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Duke University.

ABSTRACT
Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling.

Show MeSH