Limits...
Epigenetic factors influencing resistance to nuclear reprogramming.

Pasque V, Jullien J, Miyamoto K, Halley-Stott RP, Gurdon JB - Trends Genet. (2011)

Bottom Line: Transcription factors, chromatin modifications, and noncoding RNAs can increase the efficiency of reprogramming.However, the success of nuclear reprogramming is limited by epigenetic mechanisms that stabilise the state of gene expression in somatic cells and thereby resist efficient reprogramming.We see this as a step towards understanding the mechanisms by which nuclear reprogramming takes place.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, The Henry Wellcome Building of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK.

Show MeSH
Resistance to reprogramming increases as cells differentiate. The extent of resistance to reprogramming (equivalent to a decrease in reprogramming efficiency) as cells differentiate, when tested by nuclear transfer (a–c), cell fusion (heterokaryon) (d) and induced pluripotency (e). Reproduced, with permission, from [15](a), [16](b), [5](c), [19](d) (but also see [100,101]) and [22](e). Abbreviations: ES, embryonic stem; ESRA, retinoic-acid differentiated embryonic stem cells.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814186&req=5

fig0010: Resistance to reprogramming increases as cells differentiate. The extent of resistance to reprogramming (equivalent to a decrease in reprogramming efficiency) as cells differentiate, when tested by nuclear transfer (a–c), cell fusion (heterokaryon) (d) and induced pluripotency (e). Reproduced, with permission, from [15](a), [16](b), [5](c), [19](d) (but also see [100,101]) and [22](e). Abbreviations: ES, embryonic stem; ESRA, retinoic-acid differentiated embryonic stem cells.

Mentions: To understand the mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming and resistance to it, one needs to be able to judge the efficiencies of the various procedures; that is, the proportion of the starting cell population that responds to a reprogramming condition. If this proportion is very small, and if those cells that respond cannot be distinguished from those that do not, it is very hard to identify reprogramming factors and mechanisms. This is because most cells may not undergo reprogramming. There are striking differences in the speed and efficiency of reprogramming by different procedures and in resistance to it. There are two kinds of evidence for resistance to reprogramming. One comes from comparing nuclei from more or less differentiated cells; the other from comparing nuclei of different cell types. The efficiency of, and resistance to, nuclear reprogramming can be measured by many criteria. We have previously reviewed the criteria that can be used to judge reprogramming efficiency elsewhere [14]. Here, we only use the formation of different cell types or transcription of pluripotency genes as criteria (Figure 2).


Epigenetic factors influencing resistance to nuclear reprogramming.

Pasque V, Jullien J, Miyamoto K, Halley-Stott RP, Gurdon JB - Trends Genet. (2011)

Resistance to reprogramming increases as cells differentiate. The extent of resistance to reprogramming (equivalent to a decrease in reprogramming efficiency) as cells differentiate, when tested by nuclear transfer (a–c), cell fusion (heterokaryon) (d) and induced pluripotency (e). Reproduced, with permission, from [15](a), [16](b), [5](c), [19](d) (but also see [100,101]) and [22](e). Abbreviations: ES, embryonic stem; ESRA, retinoic-acid differentiated embryonic stem cells.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814186&req=5

fig0010: Resistance to reprogramming increases as cells differentiate. The extent of resistance to reprogramming (equivalent to a decrease in reprogramming efficiency) as cells differentiate, when tested by nuclear transfer (a–c), cell fusion (heterokaryon) (d) and induced pluripotency (e). Reproduced, with permission, from [15](a), [16](b), [5](c), [19](d) (but also see [100,101]) and [22](e). Abbreviations: ES, embryonic stem; ESRA, retinoic-acid differentiated embryonic stem cells.
Mentions: To understand the mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming and resistance to it, one needs to be able to judge the efficiencies of the various procedures; that is, the proportion of the starting cell population that responds to a reprogramming condition. If this proportion is very small, and if those cells that respond cannot be distinguished from those that do not, it is very hard to identify reprogramming factors and mechanisms. This is because most cells may not undergo reprogramming. There are striking differences in the speed and efficiency of reprogramming by different procedures and in resistance to it. There are two kinds of evidence for resistance to reprogramming. One comes from comparing nuclei from more or less differentiated cells; the other from comparing nuclei of different cell types. The efficiency of, and resistance to, nuclear reprogramming can be measured by many criteria. We have previously reviewed the criteria that can be used to judge reprogramming efficiency elsewhere [14]. Here, we only use the formation of different cell types or transcription of pluripotency genes as criteria (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Transcription factors, chromatin modifications, and noncoding RNAs can increase the efficiency of reprogramming.However, the success of nuclear reprogramming is limited by epigenetic mechanisms that stabilise the state of gene expression in somatic cells and thereby resist efficient reprogramming.We see this as a step towards understanding the mechanisms by which nuclear reprogramming takes place.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, The Henry Wellcome Building of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK.

Show MeSH