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Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.

Zhu KY, Xu SL, Choi RC, Yan AL, Dong TT, Tsim KW - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction.The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase.The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Life Science, Center for Chinese Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of TCM Formulae and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The comparison of KXS and single herb in stimulating the secretion of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes. Astrocytes were treated with DZW-652 (15 μg/mL), the extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (4.5 μg/mL), the extract of Polygalae Radix (3 μg/mL), the extract of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (3 μg/mL), and the extract of Poria (4.5 μg/mL) for 48 hours, and then the media were collected to determine the amount of NGF, BDNF, and GDNF. Data are expressed as percentage of increase to control (no drug treatment, that is, 0 extract here). Values are showed as the Mean ± SEM, n = 3. Abbreviations: GR: Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma; PR: Polygalae Radix; ATR: Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma; PO: Poria.
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fig4: The comparison of KXS and single herb in stimulating the secretion of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes. Astrocytes were treated with DZW-652 (15 μg/mL), the extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (4.5 μg/mL), the extract of Polygalae Radix (3 μg/mL), the extract of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (3 μg/mL), and the extract of Poria (4.5 μg/mL) for 48 hours, and then the media were collected to determine the amount of NGF, BDNF, and GDNF. Data are expressed as percentage of increase to control (no drug treatment, that is, 0 extract here). Values are showed as the Mean ± SEM, n = 3. Abbreviations: GR: Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma; PR: Polygalae Radix; ATR: Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma; PO: Poria.

Mentions: The KXS-induced gene expression was robust for NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, and thus, the proteins of these factors in astrocytes' conditioned medium were further determined. Firstly, standard curves of three target proteins in ELISA assays were made by different concentrations of protein standards. NGF, BDND, and GDNF exerted good linearity in a range of 0~40 pg/mL (Figure 3(a)), and the square of linear correlation coefficient was all over 0.95. The recovery of spiked protein was greater than 90%. The coefficient of intra and interassay was over 0.90. In astrocytes treated with KXS extracts, the induction of NGF, GDNF, and BDNF was determined by ELISA. The amount of NGF of cultured astrocytes was 4.92 pg/mg proteins, while the value of BDNF and GDNF was 2.39 pg/mg protein and 21.6 pg/mg proteins, respectively. Under the treatment of KXS, the expressions of NGF, GDNF, and BDNF were increased in dose-dependent manners (Figure 3(b)). At 15 μg/mL of KXS in all cases, the inductions were significant higher than that of the control. The treatment of DZW-652 exerted the best stimulation in neurotrophic factor secretion: a maximal induction at 100% increase compared to control was revealed under 15 μg/mL of DZW-652 (Figure 3(b)). In addition, the inducing effect of KXS-984 was slightly better than that of KXS-652 (Figure 3(b)). Here, the application of Bt2-cAMP was used as a control. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs were tested for their role in the induction of neurotrophic factors, and the effects were not significant. Here, the water extracts of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Polygalae Radix could slightly stimulate the expression of NGF and GDNF (Figure 4), while the other inductions were very small. In contrast, a combined herbal mixture (i.e., DZW-652) showed robust induction.


Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.

Zhu KY, Xu SL, Choi RC, Yan AL, Dong TT, Tsim KW - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

The comparison of KXS and single herb in stimulating the secretion of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes. Astrocytes were treated with DZW-652 (15 μg/mL), the extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (4.5 μg/mL), the extract of Polygalae Radix (3 μg/mL), the extract of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (3 μg/mL), and the extract of Poria (4.5 μg/mL) for 48 hours, and then the media were collected to determine the amount of NGF, BDNF, and GDNF. Data are expressed as percentage of increase to control (no drug treatment, that is, 0 extract here). Values are showed as the Mean ± SEM, n = 3. Abbreviations: GR: Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma; PR: Polygalae Radix; ATR: Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma; PO: Poria.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig4: The comparison of KXS and single herb in stimulating the secretion of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes. Astrocytes were treated with DZW-652 (15 μg/mL), the extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (4.5 μg/mL), the extract of Polygalae Radix (3 μg/mL), the extract of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (3 μg/mL), and the extract of Poria (4.5 μg/mL) for 48 hours, and then the media were collected to determine the amount of NGF, BDNF, and GDNF. Data are expressed as percentage of increase to control (no drug treatment, that is, 0 extract here). Values are showed as the Mean ± SEM, n = 3. Abbreviations: GR: Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma; PR: Polygalae Radix; ATR: Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma; PO: Poria.
Mentions: The KXS-induced gene expression was robust for NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, and thus, the proteins of these factors in astrocytes' conditioned medium were further determined. Firstly, standard curves of three target proteins in ELISA assays were made by different concentrations of protein standards. NGF, BDND, and GDNF exerted good linearity in a range of 0~40 pg/mL (Figure 3(a)), and the square of linear correlation coefficient was all over 0.95. The recovery of spiked protein was greater than 90%. The coefficient of intra and interassay was over 0.90. In astrocytes treated with KXS extracts, the induction of NGF, GDNF, and BDNF was determined by ELISA. The amount of NGF of cultured astrocytes was 4.92 pg/mg proteins, while the value of BDNF and GDNF was 2.39 pg/mg protein and 21.6 pg/mg proteins, respectively. Under the treatment of KXS, the expressions of NGF, GDNF, and BDNF were increased in dose-dependent manners (Figure 3(b)). At 15 μg/mL of KXS in all cases, the inductions were significant higher than that of the control. The treatment of DZW-652 exerted the best stimulation in neurotrophic factor secretion: a maximal induction at 100% increase compared to control was revealed under 15 μg/mL of DZW-652 (Figure 3(b)). In addition, the inducing effect of KXS-984 was slightly better than that of KXS-652 (Figure 3(b)). Here, the application of Bt2-cAMP was used as a control. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs were tested for their role in the induction of neurotrophic factors, and the effects were not significant. Here, the water extracts of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Polygalae Radix could slightly stimulate the expression of NGF and GDNF (Figure 4), while the other inductions were very small. In contrast, a combined herbal mixture (i.e., DZW-652) showed robust induction.

Bottom Line: In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction.The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase.The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Life Science, Center for Chinese Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of TCM Formulae and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus