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Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age.

Weikum WM, Brain U, Chau CM, Grunau RE, Boyce WT, Diamond A, Oberlander TF - Front Cell Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele) remained stable.In the face of a mother with a more depressed mood, EFs were best preserved in children prenatally exposed to SRIs and with at least one short SLC6A4 allele.Yet, prenatally-exposed LL children hold out promise of possibly superior EF if their mother's mood remains euthymic or improves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pediatrics, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs) including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior). Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N = 26) and non-exposed (N = 38) were studied at age 6 years (M = 6.3; SD = 0.5) using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F) to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester) and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale). Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire). Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD) behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele) remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold), EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms-in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L) alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance-better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children's EF performance was worse than that of any other group. In the face of a mother with a more depressed mood, EFs were best preserved in children prenatally exposed to SRIs and with at least one short SLC6A4 allele. Yet, prenatally-exposed LL children hold out promise of possibly superior EF if their mother's mood remains euthymic or improves.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reaction Time (ms ± sem) by block and SRI Exposure.
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Figure 1: Reaction Time (ms ± sem) by block and SRI Exposure.

Mentions: Overall, no SRI exposure group differences in RT (Figure 1) were found in any of the 3 blocks. RT increased with increasing task difficulty, but that did not differ by SRI exposure or genotype (LL vs. ≥1 S allele). In a separate analysis of Choice RT task, older children were faster (B = −35.5, p = 0.048). To control for speed of responding faster, Choice RT was added to an overall GEE RT model as a covariate. There was still no significant effect for SRI exposure or SLC6A4 genotype (LL vs. ≥1 S allele) in the GEE RT model.


Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age.

Weikum WM, Brain U, Chau CM, Grunau RE, Boyce WT, Diamond A, Oberlander TF - Front Cell Neurosci (2013)

Reaction Time (ms ± sem) by block and SRI Exposure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3795328&req=5

Figure 1: Reaction Time (ms ± sem) by block and SRI Exposure.
Mentions: Overall, no SRI exposure group differences in RT (Figure 1) were found in any of the 3 blocks. RT increased with increasing task difficulty, but that did not differ by SRI exposure or genotype (LL vs. ≥1 S allele). In a separate analysis of Choice RT task, older children were faster (B = −35.5, p = 0.048). To control for speed of responding faster, Choice RT was added to an overall GEE RT model as a covariate. There was still no significant effect for SRI exposure or SLC6A4 genotype (LL vs. ≥1 S allele) in the GEE RT model.

Bottom Line: For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele) remained stable.In the face of a mother with a more depressed mood, EFs were best preserved in children prenatally exposed to SRIs and with at least one short SLC6A4 allele.Yet, prenatally-exposed LL children hold out promise of possibly superior EF if their mother's mood remains euthymic or improves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pediatrics, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs) including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior). Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N = 26) and non-exposed (N = 38) were studied at age 6 years (M = 6.3; SD = 0.5) using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F) to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester) and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale). Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire). Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD) behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele) remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold), EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms-in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L) alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance-better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children's EF performance was worse than that of any other group. In the face of a mother with a more depressed mood, EFs were best preserved in children prenatally exposed to SRIs and with at least one short SLC6A4 allele. Yet, prenatally-exposed LL children hold out promise of possibly superior EF if their mother's mood remains euthymic or improves.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus