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Combined genetic and telemetry data reveal high rates of gene flow, migration, and long-distance dispersal potential in Arctic ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

Martinez-Bakker ME, Sell SK, Swanson BJ, Kelly BP, Tallmon DA - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Seasonal movements and use of sea ice were determined for 27 seals tracked via satellite telemetry.We found that ringed seals disperse on a pan-Arctic scale and both males and females may migrate long distances during the summer months when sea ice extent is minimal.Gene flow among Arctic breeding sites and between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea subspecies was high; these two subspecies are interconnected as are breeding sites within the Arctic subspecies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America ; Biology and Marine Biology Program, University of Alaska Southeast, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are broadly distributed in seasonally ice covered seas, and their survival and reproductive success is intricately linked to sea ice and snow. Climatic warming is diminishing Arctic snow and sea ice and threatens to endanger ringed seals in the foreseeable future. We investigated the population structure and connectedness within and among three subspecies: Arctic (P. hispida hispida), Baltic (P. hispida botnica), and Lake Saimaa (P. hispida saimensis) ringed seals to assess their capacity to respond to rapid environmental changes. We consider (a) the geographical scale of migration, (b) use of sea ice, and (c) the amount of gene flow between subspecies. Seasonal movements and use of sea ice were determined for 27 seals tracked via satellite telemetry. Additionally, population genetic analyses were conducted using 354 seals representative of each subspecies and 11 breeding sites. Genetic analyses included sequences from two mitochondrial regions and genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci. We found that ringed seals disperse on a pan-Arctic scale and both males and females may migrate long distances during the summer months when sea ice extent is minimal. Gene flow among Arctic breeding sites and between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea subspecies was high; these two subspecies are interconnected as are breeding sites within the Arctic subspecies.

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Panmixia and genetic differentiation between subspecies and breeding populations of ringed seals.Breeding sites from left-to-right: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa. Populations with the same color and connected by a line were deemed panmictic based on pairwise permutation tests using (A) mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase I, (B) mtDNA control region, and (C) microsatellites. Non-panmictic sites are significantly differentiated from other sites (p-values <0.05). Breeding sites left-to-right in panel C: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Barrow, Oliktok, Prudhoe, Kaktovik, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa.
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pone-0077125-g006: Panmixia and genetic differentiation between subspecies and breeding populations of ringed seals.Breeding sites from left-to-right: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa. Populations with the same color and connected by a line were deemed panmictic based on pairwise permutation tests using (A) mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase I, (B) mtDNA control region, and (C) microsatellites. Non-panmictic sites are significantly differentiated from other sites (p-values <0.05). Breeding sites left-to-right in panel C: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Barrow, Oliktok, Prudhoe, Kaktovik, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa.

Mentions: The AMOVAs demonstrated little genetic variation among breeding sites, suggesting interbreeding across sites. In order to determine whether any of our sites (taken pairwise) are panmictic, we employed a nonparametric method of testing a hypothesis of panmixia vs. genetic differentiation for pairs of sample sites. The statistical test, permtest, based on the work of Hudson, Boos, and Kaplan [31] was preformed using each of our genetic markers independently (i.e. microsatellites, COI, and CR). All three markers signaled that Lake Saimaa is genetically differentiated from all other sample sites (p-values <0.003). All permutation procedures also showed Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, and Ulukhaktok/Holman (the three Easternmost P. h. hispida breeding sites) to be panmictic (p-values >0.05). The CR and the microsatellites suggest that the Baltic Sea is also genetically differentiated (p-values <0.05); however, COI suggests that that the Baltic is panmictic with Ulukhaktok/Holman, Tuktoyaktuk, Paktoa, and Peard Bay (p-values >0.05; Figure 6).


Combined genetic and telemetry data reveal high rates of gene flow, migration, and long-distance dispersal potential in Arctic ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

Martinez-Bakker ME, Sell SK, Swanson BJ, Kelly BP, Tallmon DA - PLoS ONE (2013)

Panmixia and genetic differentiation between subspecies and breeding populations of ringed seals.Breeding sites from left-to-right: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa. Populations with the same color and connected by a line were deemed panmictic based on pairwise permutation tests using (A) mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase I, (B) mtDNA control region, and (C) microsatellites. Non-panmictic sites are significantly differentiated from other sites (p-values <0.05). Breeding sites left-to-right in panel C: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Barrow, Oliktok, Prudhoe, Kaktovik, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794998&req=5

pone-0077125-g006: Panmixia and genetic differentiation between subspecies and breeding populations of ringed seals.Breeding sites from left-to-right: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa. Populations with the same color and connected by a line were deemed panmictic based on pairwise permutation tests using (A) mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase I, (B) mtDNA control region, and (C) microsatellites. Non-panmictic sites are significantly differentiated from other sites (p-values <0.05). Breeding sites left-to-right in panel C: Kotzebue, Peard Bay, Barrow, Oliktok, Prudhoe, Kaktovik, Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, Ulukhaktok/Holman, Baltic Sea, and Lake Saimaa.
Mentions: The AMOVAs demonstrated little genetic variation among breeding sites, suggesting interbreeding across sites. In order to determine whether any of our sites (taken pairwise) are panmictic, we employed a nonparametric method of testing a hypothesis of panmixia vs. genetic differentiation for pairs of sample sites. The statistical test, permtest, based on the work of Hudson, Boos, and Kaplan [31] was preformed using each of our genetic markers independently (i.e. microsatellites, COI, and CR). All three markers signaled that Lake Saimaa is genetically differentiated from all other sample sites (p-values <0.003). All permutation procedures also showed Paktoa, Tuktoyaktuk, and Ulukhaktok/Holman (the three Easternmost P. h. hispida breeding sites) to be panmictic (p-values >0.05). The CR and the microsatellites suggest that the Baltic Sea is also genetically differentiated (p-values <0.05); however, COI suggests that that the Baltic is panmictic with Ulukhaktok/Holman, Tuktoyaktuk, Paktoa, and Peard Bay (p-values >0.05; Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Seasonal movements and use of sea ice were determined for 27 seals tracked via satellite telemetry.We found that ringed seals disperse on a pan-Arctic scale and both males and females may migrate long distances during the summer months when sea ice extent is minimal.Gene flow among Arctic breeding sites and between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea subspecies was high; these two subspecies are interconnected as are breeding sites within the Arctic subspecies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America ; Biology and Marine Biology Program, University of Alaska Southeast, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are broadly distributed in seasonally ice covered seas, and their survival and reproductive success is intricately linked to sea ice and snow. Climatic warming is diminishing Arctic snow and sea ice and threatens to endanger ringed seals in the foreseeable future. We investigated the population structure and connectedness within and among three subspecies: Arctic (P. hispida hispida), Baltic (P. hispida botnica), and Lake Saimaa (P. hispida saimensis) ringed seals to assess their capacity to respond to rapid environmental changes. We consider (a) the geographical scale of migration, (b) use of sea ice, and (c) the amount of gene flow between subspecies. Seasonal movements and use of sea ice were determined for 27 seals tracked via satellite telemetry. Additionally, population genetic analyses were conducted using 354 seals representative of each subspecies and 11 breeding sites. Genetic analyses included sequences from two mitochondrial regions and genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci. We found that ringed seals disperse on a pan-Arctic scale and both males and females may migrate long distances during the summer months when sea ice extent is minimal. Gene flow among Arctic breeding sites and between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea subspecies was high; these two subspecies are interconnected as are breeding sites within the Arctic subspecies.

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