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A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

Shi YY, Sun LX, Huang ZY, Wu XB, Zhu YQ, Zheng HJ, Zeng ZJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM.Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM.We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee.

Results: F2 workers (N = 103) were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM.

Conclusion: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

Show MeSH
An intercross population performed to obtain workers for map construction.The grandmother was Diannan ACC queens (white, circle) and it was instrumentally inseminated with the sperm admixture from 12 drones (grandfathers) of Central China ACC drones (black, square). Two hybrid queens 12 and 15 (mothers, black/white, circle), were backcrossed to two males (the fathers), one belonging to Diannan ACC and the other one Central China ACC. The female progeny (workers) of these backcrosses were collected from two families (queens 12 and 15).
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pone-0076459-g001: An intercross population performed to obtain workers for map construction.The grandmother was Diannan ACC queens (white, circle) and it was instrumentally inseminated with the sperm admixture from 12 drones (grandfathers) of Central China ACC drones (black, square). Two hybrid queens 12 and 15 (mothers, black/white, circle), were backcrossed to two males (the fathers), one belonging to Diannan ACC and the other one Central China ACC. The female progeny (workers) of these backcrosses were collected from two families (queens 12 and 15).

Mentions: We followed the method of Solignac et al (2004) to obtain two families ACC samples. In order to maximize the number of informative loci, we used queens that were cross-bred between two different geographical strains of ACC (Central China ACC and Diannan ACC). Twenty F1 hybrid queens were developed from a cross between F0 Diannan ACC queens (Honghe, Yunnan) and Central China ACC drones (Nanchang, Jiangxi), these hybrid queens were named with a sequencial number (1–20). The distance between Honghe and Nanchang is about 1,933 km. Virgin Diannan ACC queens (the grandmothers) were instrumentally inseminated with the mixed sperm from 12 Central China ACC drones (the grandfathers). These twenty F1 hybrid queens (the mothers) were instrumentally inseminated with the mixed sperm from two males (the fathers), one belonging to Diannan ACC and the other Central China ACC. The female progeny (workers) of these backcrosses were randomly collected from two families (F1 hybrid queens 12 and 15) (Fig. 1). The honey bee colonies were maintained at the Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China (28.46°N, 115.49°E), according to standard beekeeping techniques. After inseminating, the bodies of the males (grandfathers and fathers) were preserved in 95% alcohol.


A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

Shi YY, Sun LX, Huang ZY, Wu XB, Zhu YQ, Zheng HJ, Zeng ZJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

An intercross population performed to obtain workers for map construction.The grandmother was Diannan ACC queens (white, circle) and it was instrumentally inseminated with the sperm admixture from 12 drones (grandfathers) of Central China ACC drones (black, square). Two hybrid queens 12 and 15 (mothers, black/white, circle), were backcrossed to two males (the fathers), one belonging to Diannan ACC and the other one Central China ACC. The female progeny (workers) of these backcrosses were collected from two families (queens 12 and 15).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794977&req=5

pone-0076459-g001: An intercross population performed to obtain workers for map construction.The grandmother was Diannan ACC queens (white, circle) and it was instrumentally inseminated with the sperm admixture from 12 drones (grandfathers) of Central China ACC drones (black, square). Two hybrid queens 12 and 15 (mothers, black/white, circle), were backcrossed to two males (the fathers), one belonging to Diannan ACC and the other one Central China ACC. The female progeny (workers) of these backcrosses were collected from two families (queens 12 and 15).
Mentions: We followed the method of Solignac et al (2004) to obtain two families ACC samples. In order to maximize the number of informative loci, we used queens that were cross-bred between two different geographical strains of ACC (Central China ACC and Diannan ACC). Twenty F1 hybrid queens were developed from a cross between F0 Diannan ACC queens (Honghe, Yunnan) and Central China ACC drones (Nanchang, Jiangxi), these hybrid queens were named with a sequencial number (1–20). The distance between Honghe and Nanchang is about 1,933 km. Virgin Diannan ACC queens (the grandmothers) were instrumentally inseminated with the mixed sperm from 12 Central China ACC drones (the grandfathers). These twenty F1 hybrid queens (the mothers) were instrumentally inseminated with the mixed sperm from two males (the fathers), one belonging to Diannan ACC and the other Central China ACC. The female progeny (workers) of these backcrosses were randomly collected from two families (F1 hybrid queens 12 and 15) (Fig. 1). The honey bee colonies were maintained at the Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China (28.46°N, 115.49°E), according to standard beekeeping techniques. After inseminating, the bodies of the males (grandfathers and fathers) were preserved in 95% alcohol.

Bottom Line: The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM.Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM.We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee.

Results: F2 workers (N = 103) were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM.

Conclusion: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

Show MeSH