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Association between usual sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure and hypertension among U.S. adults: NHANES 2005-2010.

Zhang Z, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Fang J, Loustalot F, Dai S, Carriquiry AL, Kuklina EV, Hong Y, Merritt R, Yang Q - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The average usual intakes of sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were 3,569 mg/d, 2,745 mg/d, and 1.41, respectively.All three measures were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% CI, 0.27-1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31-2.70) per 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium or potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12-1.98) per 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio.Our results provide population-based evidence that concurrent higher sodium and lower potassium consumption are associated with hypertension.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Studies indicate high sodium and low potassium intake can increase blood pressure suggesting the ratio of sodium-to-potassium may be informative. Yet, limited studies examine the association of the sodium-to-potassium ratio with blood pressure and hypertension.

Methods: We analyzed data on 10,563 participants aged ≥20 years in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were neither taking anti-hypertensive medication nor on a low sodium diet. We used measurement error models to estimate usual intakes, multivariable linear regression to assess their associations with blood pressure, and logistic regression to assess their associations with hypertension.

Results: The average usual intakes of sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were 3,569 mg/d, 2,745 mg/d, and 1.41, respectively. All three measures were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% CI, 0.27-1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31-2.70) per 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium or potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12-1.98) per 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio. The adjusted odds ratios for hypertension were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.07-1.83), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53-0.97) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.05-1.61), respectively, comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of usual intake of sodium, potassium or sodium-to-potassium ratio.

Conclusions: Our results provide population-based evidence that concurrent higher sodium and lower potassium consumption are associated with hypertension.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Adjusted systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval) by 10th and 90th percentiles of potassium intake and age 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years among adults aged ≥20 years who were not taking antihypertensive medication, NHANES 2005–2010.
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pone-0075289-g001: Adjusted systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval) by 10th and 90th percentiles of potassium intake and age 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years among adults aged ≥20 years who were not taking antihypertensive medication, NHANES 2005–2010.

Mentions: After adjustment for potential confounders, intake of sodium, potassium and their ratio were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27–1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31–2.70) for every 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium and potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12–1.98) for every 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio (Table 3). Overall, diastolic blood pressure was not associated with the estimated intakes, with one exception; every 1,000 mg/d increase of potassium intake was associated with 0.75 mmHg (95% CI, 0.22–1.28) decrease in diastolic blood pressure. The relationship between systolic blood pressure and potassium intake differed by age groups (p<0.001 for interaction). The effect of potassium intake on systolic blood pressure (comparing 90th (3,751 mg/d) to 10th percentile (1,831 mg/d)) appeared to be stronger among older age groups (Figure 1).


Association between usual sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure and hypertension among U.S. adults: NHANES 2005-2010.

Zhang Z, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Fang J, Loustalot F, Dai S, Carriquiry AL, Kuklina EV, Hong Y, Merritt R, Yang Q - PLoS ONE (2013)

Adjusted systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval) by 10th and 90th percentiles of potassium intake and age 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years among adults aged ≥20 years who were not taking antihypertensive medication, NHANES 2005–2010.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794974&req=5

pone-0075289-g001: Adjusted systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval) by 10th and 90th percentiles of potassium intake and age 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years among adults aged ≥20 years who were not taking antihypertensive medication, NHANES 2005–2010.
Mentions: After adjustment for potential confounders, intake of sodium, potassium and their ratio were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27–1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31–2.70) for every 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium and potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12–1.98) for every 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio (Table 3). Overall, diastolic blood pressure was not associated with the estimated intakes, with one exception; every 1,000 mg/d increase of potassium intake was associated with 0.75 mmHg (95% CI, 0.22–1.28) decrease in diastolic blood pressure. The relationship between systolic blood pressure and potassium intake differed by age groups (p<0.001 for interaction). The effect of potassium intake on systolic blood pressure (comparing 90th (3,751 mg/d) to 10th percentile (1,831 mg/d)) appeared to be stronger among older age groups (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The average usual intakes of sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were 3,569 mg/d, 2,745 mg/d, and 1.41, respectively.All three measures were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% CI, 0.27-1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31-2.70) per 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium or potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12-1.98) per 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio.Our results provide population-based evidence that concurrent higher sodium and lower potassium consumption are associated with hypertension.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Studies indicate high sodium and low potassium intake can increase blood pressure suggesting the ratio of sodium-to-potassium may be informative. Yet, limited studies examine the association of the sodium-to-potassium ratio with blood pressure and hypertension.

Methods: We analyzed data on 10,563 participants aged ≥20 years in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were neither taking anti-hypertensive medication nor on a low sodium diet. We used measurement error models to estimate usual intakes, multivariable linear regression to assess their associations with blood pressure, and logistic regression to assess their associations with hypertension.

Results: The average usual intakes of sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were 3,569 mg/d, 2,745 mg/d, and 1.41, respectively. All three measures were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% CI, 0.27-1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31-2.70) per 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium or potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12-1.98) per 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio. The adjusted odds ratios for hypertension were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.07-1.83), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53-0.97) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.05-1.61), respectively, comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of usual intake of sodium, potassium or sodium-to-potassium ratio.

Conclusions: Our results provide population-based evidence that concurrent higher sodium and lower potassium consumption are associated with hypertension.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus