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Citrus leaf volatiles as affected by developmental stage and genetic type.

Azam M, Jiang Q, Zhang B, Xu C, Chen K - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: The percentage of aldehyde and monoterpene hydrocarbons increased, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds decreased during leaf development.Notably, linalool content decreased, while limonene increased, during leaf development in most cultivars.Satsuma mandarin and β-terpinene in mature leaves of three genotypes vs. the other four.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China.

ABSTRACT
Major volatiles from young and mature leaves of different citrus types were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. A total of 123 components were identified form nine citrus cultivars, including nine aldehydes, 19 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 27 oxygenated monoterpenes, 43 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, eight oxygenated sesquiterpenes, two ketones, six esters and nine miscellaneous. Young leaves produced higher amounts of volatiles than mature leaves in most cultivars. The percentage of aldehyde and monoterpene hydrocarbons increased, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds decreased during leaf development. Linalool was the most abundant compound in young leaves, whereas limonene was the chief component in mature ones. Notably, linalool content decreased, while limonene increased, during leaf development in most cultivars. Leaf volatiles were also affected by genetic types. A most abundant volatile in one or several genotypes can be absent in another one(s), such as limonene in young leaves of lemon vs. Satsuma mandarin and β-terpinene in mature leaves of three genotypes vs. the other four. Compositional data was subjected to multivariate statistical analysis, and variations in leaf volatiles were identified and clustered into six groups. This research determining the relationship between production of major volatiles from different citrus varieties and leaf stages could be of use for industrial and culinary purposes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Ratio of volatiles in mature to young leaves from nine citrus cultivars. The full cultivar names corresponding to the abbreviations are as indicated in Table 1. Color code shown above the figure: red shows high, blue low. The blank cells indicate volatiles absent in both young and mature leaves.
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f3-ijms-14-17744: Ratio of volatiles in mature to young leaves from nine citrus cultivars. The full cultivar names corresponding to the abbreviations are as indicated in Table 1. Color code shown above the figure: red shows high, blue low. The blank cells indicate volatiles absent in both young and mature leaves.

Mentions: Leaf volatiles changed during leaf development, and changes in individual volatiles are listed in both Table 3 and Table 4. The ratio of the content, by percentage, in mature leaf to young leaf was calculated, transformed into log2 and is shown in Figure 3. The changes were not consistent among different cultivars. For example, linalool decreased in most cultivars >2-fold, with the exception of Zaoxiangyou, where it increased two-fold; Limonene was found to be >3-fold increased in mature leaves of Satsuma and >1-fold in Liubencheng, but decreased in Zaoxiangyou and Huyou (Figure 3); β-Elemene, on the other hand, decreased three-fold in Liubencheng, but increased by >3-fold in Zaoxiangyou. It was noted that the ratio of α-citral and β-citral was highest in Satsuma, while it decreased in most cultivars and, especially, in Hongshigan (Figure 3). In addition, 2-hexanal increased two-fold in Huyou, yet only slightly increased in other cultivars, while citronellal increased by >3-fold in Yuhuanyou and decreased by >1-fold in Zaoxiangyou.


Citrus leaf volatiles as affected by developmental stage and genetic type.

Azam M, Jiang Q, Zhang B, Xu C, Chen K - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Ratio of volatiles in mature to young leaves from nine citrus cultivars. The full cultivar names corresponding to the abbreviations are as indicated in Table 1. Color code shown above the figure: red shows high, blue low. The blank cells indicate volatiles absent in both young and mature leaves.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794751&req=5

f3-ijms-14-17744: Ratio of volatiles in mature to young leaves from nine citrus cultivars. The full cultivar names corresponding to the abbreviations are as indicated in Table 1. Color code shown above the figure: red shows high, blue low. The blank cells indicate volatiles absent in both young and mature leaves.
Mentions: Leaf volatiles changed during leaf development, and changes in individual volatiles are listed in both Table 3 and Table 4. The ratio of the content, by percentage, in mature leaf to young leaf was calculated, transformed into log2 and is shown in Figure 3. The changes were not consistent among different cultivars. For example, linalool decreased in most cultivars >2-fold, with the exception of Zaoxiangyou, where it increased two-fold; Limonene was found to be >3-fold increased in mature leaves of Satsuma and >1-fold in Liubencheng, but decreased in Zaoxiangyou and Huyou (Figure 3); β-Elemene, on the other hand, decreased three-fold in Liubencheng, but increased by >3-fold in Zaoxiangyou. It was noted that the ratio of α-citral and β-citral was highest in Satsuma, while it decreased in most cultivars and, especially, in Hongshigan (Figure 3). In addition, 2-hexanal increased two-fold in Huyou, yet only slightly increased in other cultivars, while citronellal increased by >3-fold in Yuhuanyou and decreased by >1-fold in Zaoxiangyou.

Bottom Line: The percentage of aldehyde and monoterpene hydrocarbons increased, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds decreased during leaf development.Notably, linalool content decreased, while limonene increased, during leaf development in most cultivars.Satsuma mandarin and β-terpinene in mature leaves of three genotypes vs. the other four.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China.

ABSTRACT
Major volatiles from young and mature leaves of different citrus types were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. A total of 123 components were identified form nine citrus cultivars, including nine aldehydes, 19 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 27 oxygenated monoterpenes, 43 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, eight oxygenated sesquiterpenes, two ketones, six esters and nine miscellaneous. Young leaves produced higher amounts of volatiles than mature leaves in most cultivars. The percentage of aldehyde and monoterpene hydrocarbons increased, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds decreased during leaf development. Linalool was the most abundant compound in young leaves, whereas limonene was the chief component in mature ones. Notably, linalool content decreased, while limonene increased, during leaf development in most cultivars. Leaf volatiles were also affected by genetic types. A most abundant volatile in one or several genotypes can be absent in another one(s), such as limonene in young leaves of lemon vs. Satsuma mandarin and β-terpinene in mature leaves of three genotypes vs. the other four. Compositional data was subjected to multivariate statistical analysis, and variations in leaf volatiles were identified and clustered into six groups. This research determining the relationship between production of major volatiles from different citrus varieties and leaf stages could be of use for industrial and culinary purposes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus