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Emerging roles of small Epstein-Barr virus derived non-coding RNAs in epithelial malignancy.

Lung RW, Tong JH, To KF - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: In NPC and EBV positive gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), 22 viral miRNAs which are located in the long alternative splicing EBV transcripts, named BamH1 A rightward transcripts (BARTs), are abundantly expressed.This article will review the pathological roles of miR-BARTs in modulating the expression of cancer-related genes in both host and viral genomes.The expression of other small non-coding RNAs in NPC and the expression pattern of miR-BARTs in rare EBV-associated epithelial cancers will also be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, State Key Laboratory in Oncology in South China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. raymond_lung@cuhk.edu.hk

ABSTRACT
Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an etiological factor in the progression of several human epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and a subset of gastric carcinoma. Reports have shown that EBV produces several viral oncoproteins, yet their pathological roles in carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. Studies on the recently discovered of EBV-encoded microRNAs (ebv-miRNAs) showed that these small molecules function as post-transcriptional gene regulators and may play a role in the carcinogenesis process. In NPC and EBV positive gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), 22 viral miRNAs which are located in the long alternative splicing EBV transcripts, named BamH1 A rightward transcripts (BARTs), are abundantly expressed. The importance of several miR-BARTs in carcinogenesis has recently been demonstrated. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the oncogenic properties of EBV and may lead to a more effective design of therapeutic regimens to combat EBV-associated malignancies. This article will review the pathological roles of miR-BARTs in modulating the expression of cancer-related genes in both host and viral genomes. The expression of other small non-coding RNAs in NPC and the expression pattern of miR-BARTs in rare EBV-associated epithelial cancers will also be discussed.

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Expression of miR-BARTs in EBV positive epithelial carcinoma. The fraction of individual miRNA from all tested miR-BARTs is plotted in the upper panel. The middle panel shows the copy number of each miR-BART per nanogram of total RNA. The value represents mean + SD is plotted.
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f1-ijms-14-17378: Expression of miR-BARTs in EBV positive epithelial carcinoma. The fraction of individual miRNA from all tested miR-BARTs is plotted in the upper panel. The middle panel shows the copy number of each miR-BART per nanogram of total RNA. The value represents mean + SD is plotted.

Mentions: EBV was the first virus identified to encode miRNA. In 2004, Thomas Tuschl and colleagues used molecular cloning methods to identify a total of 5 miRNAs (ebv-miR-BHRF1-1, −2, −3, ebv-miR-BART1 and 2) in human B-cells infected with laboratory isolated EBV strain B95.8, which carries a 12-kb deletion in the BART region of the EBV genome [73] (Figure 1). Eventually, subsequent work on other latently infected cell lines and biopsy materials identified a total of 25 EBV encoded miRNAs [23,24,74,75,80]. Among them, three miRNAs arising from the UTR of the distinct Bcl2 homolog gene BHRF1 (ebv-miR-BHRF1-1, −2 and −3) are predicted to be expressed in the EBV latency III program. The rest of the remaining 22 miRNAs (miR-BART1 to miR-BART22), which are located mainly in two clusters within the non-coding BART region, are generally highly expressed in most of the EBV infected epithelial cells (latency I and II) [20,39].


Emerging roles of small Epstein-Barr virus derived non-coding RNAs in epithelial malignancy.

Lung RW, Tong JH, To KF - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Expression of miR-BARTs in EBV positive epithelial carcinoma. The fraction of individual miRNA from all tested miR-BARTs is plotted in the upper panel. The middle panel shows the copy number of each miR-BART per nanogram of total RNA. The value represents mean + SD is plotted.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794732&req=5

f1-ijms-14-17378: Expression of miR-BARTs in EBV positive epithelial carcinoma. The fraction of individual miRNA from all tested miR-BARTs is plotted in the upper panel. The middle panel shows the copy number of each miR-BART per nanogram of total RNA. The value represents mean + SD is plotted.
Mentions: EBV was the first virus identified to encode miRNA. In 2004, Thomas Tuschl and colleagues used molecular cloning methods to identify a total of 5 miRNAs (ebv-miR-BHRF1-1, −2, −3, ebv-miR-BART1 and 2) in human B-cells infected with laboratory isolated EBV strain B95.8, which carries a 12-kb deletion in the BART region of the EBV genome [73] (Figure 1). Eventually, subsequent work on other latently infected cell lines and biopsy materials identified a total of 25 EBV encoded miRNAs [23,24,74,75,80]. Among them, three miRNAs arising from the UTR of the distinct Bcl2 homolog gene BHRF1 (ebv-miR-BHRF1-1, −2 and −3) are predicted to be expressed in the EBV latency III program. The rest of the remaining 22 miRNAs (miR-BART1 to miR-BART22), which are located mainly in two clusters within the non-coding BART region, are generally highly expressed in most of the EBV infected epithelial cells (latency I and II) [20,39].

Bottom Line: In NPC and EBV positive gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), 22 viral miRNAs which are located in the long alternative splicing EBV transcripts, named BamH1 A rightward transcripts (BARTs), are abundantly expressed.This article will review the pathological roles of miR-BARTs in modulating the expression of cancer-related genes in both host and viral genomes.The expression of other small non-coding RNAs in NPC and the expression pattern of miR-BARTs in rare EBV-associated epithelial cancers will also be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, State Key Laboratory in Oncology in South China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. raymond_lung@cuhk.edu.hk

ABSTRACT
Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an etiological factor in the progression of several human epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and a subset of gastric carcinoma. Reports have shown that EBV produces several viral oncoproteins, yet their pathological roles in carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. Studies on the recently discovered of EBV-encoded microRNAs (ebv-miRNAs) showed that these small molecules function as post-transcriptional gene regulators and may play a role in the carcinogenesis process. In NPC and EBV positive gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), 22 viral miRNAs which are located in the long alternative splicing EBV transcripts, named BamH1 A rightward transcripts (BARTs), are abundantly expressed. The importance of several miR-BARTs in carcinogenesis has recently been demonstrated. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the oncogenic properties of EBV and may lead to a more effective design of therapeutic regimens to combat EBV-associated malignancies. This article will review the pathological roles of miR-BARTs in modulating the expression of cancer-related genes in both host and viral genomes. The expression of other small non-coding RNAs in NPC and the expression pattern of miR-BARTs in rare EBV-associated epithelial cancers will also be discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus