Limits...
A systematic review of biopsychosocial training programs for the self-management of emotional stress: potential applications for the military.

Crawford C, Wallerstedt DB, Khorsan R, Clausen SS, Jonas WB, Walter JA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders.Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction.Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Samueli Institute, 1737 King Street, Suite 600, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA.

ABSTRACT
Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Training requirements and (b) self-practice requirements.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794660&req=5

fig2: (a) Training requirements and (b) self-practice requirements.

Mentions: In this section, the authors provide a subjective assessment of the resource requirements for these programs, based on the descriptive data collected: information describing the amount of time required for individual and practitioner or trainer involvement, facility and equipment needed, and estimated cost ranges. Because the unnamed programs were heterogeneous with regard to time for training and content involved in each session, the authors elected not to report on resource requirements for these. In determining what resources would potentially be required during the training phase for the named programs (see Figure 2(a)), the authors considered this as the period of time when a program was initially instituted and would require a trainer or instructor to teach self-management skills to participants. Since data was collected on the “dose” of the program training (i.e., the actual number of hours per week × number of weeks in which the program was delivered), the authors then categorized the amount of training time needed as minimal (less than 10 hours on average) or extensive (greater than 10 hours). Based on this information, the authors then estimated the amount of practitioner or trainer involvement required to teach these skills. Programs like MBSR and CBSM require substantially more specialized training of and sustained practitioner involvement, compared to interventions like AT and RRT which can be more quickly learned by participants. Using the descriptions of the intervention extracted from the data, the authors then codified facility requirements (i.e., an estimate of how much space is needed to learn the techniques), whether any equipment is necessary to learn the skills, and costs associated with the training (based on internet searches of the described programs). The authors present a similar assessment for the self-practice requirements (i.e., once the individual is fully trained and able to practice on his/her own) in Figure 2(b). Compared to conventional therapies, the resource requirements for both training and self-practice are all overall likely minimal. Once fully trained, service members should be able to practice these skills easily in any setting, with minimal time required, no equipment necessary, and at virtually no additional cost. While the main focus of this review was to report on the effectiveness of these multimodal programs in impacting emotional stress, the authors have additionally provided information about estimated resource requirements for military leadership and program managers in order to guide their decision making about the feasibility of integrating such programs into military settings. Whether these programs could be implemented “as is” or if they would need to be modified or adapted is not an assessment the authors have made, as only those in decision-making positions are able to definitively decide such feasibility issues.


A systematic review of biopsychosocial training programs for the self-management of emotional stress: potential applications for the military.

Crawford C, Wallerstedt DB, Khorsan R, Clausen SS, Jonas WB, Walter JA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

(a) Training requirements and (b) self-practice requirements.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794660&req=5

fig2: (a) Training requirements and (b) self-practice requirements.
Mentions: In this section, the authors provide a subjective assessment of the resource requirements for these programs, based on the descriptive data collected: information describing the amount of time required for individual and practitioner or trainer involvement, facility and equipment needed, and estimated cost ranges. Because the unnamed programs were heterogeneous with regard to time for training and content involved in each session, the authors elected not to report on resource requirements for these. In determining what resources would potentially be required during the training phase for the named programs (see Figure 2(a)), the authors considered this as the period of time when a program was initially instituted and would require a trainer or instructor to teach self-management skills to participants. Since data was collected on the “dose” of the program training (i.e., the actual number of hours per week × number of weeks in which the program was delivered), the authors then categorized the amount of training time needed as minimal (less than 10 hours on average) or extensive (greater than 10 hours). Based on this information, the authors then estimated the amount of practitioner or trainer involvement required to teach these skills. Programs like MBSR and CBSM require substantially more specialized training of and sustained practitioner involvement, compared to interventions like AT and RRT which can be more quickly learned by participants. Using the descriptions of the intervention extracted from the data, the authors then codified facility requirements (i.e., an estimate of how much space is needed to learn the techniques), whether any equipment is necessary to learn the skills, and costs associated with the training (based on internet searches of the described programs). The authors present a similar assessment for the self-practice requirements (i.e., once the individual is fully trained and able to practice on his/her own) in Figure 2(b). Compared to conventional therapies, the resource requirements for both training and self-practice are all overall likely minimal. Once fully trained, service members should be able to practice these skills easily in any setting, with minimal time required, no equipment necessary, and at virtually no additional cost. While the main focus of this review was to report on the effectiveness of these multimodal programs in impacting emotional stress, the authors have additionally provided information about estimated resource requirements for military leadership and program managers in order to guide their decision making about the feasibility of integrating such programs into military settings. Whether these programs could be implemented “as is” or if they would need to be modified or adapted is not an assessment the authors have made, as only those in decision-making positions are able to definitively decide such feasibility issues.

Bottom Line: Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders.Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction.Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Samueli Institute, 1737 King Street, Suite 600, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA.

ABSTRACT
Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus