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The Aqueous Extract of Rhizome of Gastrodia elata Protected Drosophila and PC12 Cells against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity.

Ng CF, Ko CH, Koon CM, Xian JW, Leung PC, Fung KP, Chan HY, Lau CB - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media)-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the A β -expressing control (all P < 0.05).GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity.In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the A β -induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong ; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry & Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

ABSTRACT
This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE) aqueous extract on beta-amyloid(A β )-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Drosophila mutants with A β -induced neurodegeneration in pan-neuron and ommatidia were used to determine the efficacy of GE. The antiapoptotic and antioxidative mechanisms of GE were also studied in A β -treated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media)-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the A β -expressing control (all P < 0.05). In vitro studies illustrated that GE increased the cell viability of A β -treated PC12 cells in dose-dependent manner, probably through attenuation of A β -induced oxidative and apoptotic stress. GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the A β -induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress. GE aqueous extract could be developed as a promising herbal agent for neuroprotection and novel adjuvant therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rhabdomere count in the pseudopupil assay. Regular array of 7 ommatidia (bright red spots) was observed in OregonR eyes. Degeneration of ommatidia was observed in the Aβ42 group, while the degeneration is improved by GE or donepezil treatments. ###P < 0.001 relative to OregonR; ***P < 0.001 relative to Aβ42 Drosophila with no treatment by one-way ANOVA. Results are the means ± SEM from 3 independent crosses. One hundred ommatidia were observed from 10 eyes of 5 Drosophila from each group in each trial.
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fig2: Rhabdomere count in the pseudopupil assay. Regular array of 7 ommatidia (bright red spots) was observed in OregonR eyes. Degeneration of ommatidia was observed in the Aβ42 group, while the degeneration is improved by GE or donepezil treatments. ###P < 0.001 relative to OregonR; ***P < 0.001 relative to Aβ42 Drosophila with no treatment by one-way ANOVA. Results are the means ± SEM from 3 independent crosses. One hundred ommatidia were observed from 10 eyes of 5 Drosophila from each group in each trial.

Mentions: We analyzed the effect of Aβ42 on degeneration of retinal tissue of Drosophila, which were mainly neurons. Aβ42 Drosophila contained significantly more degenerating rhabdomeres, compared with OregonR. The number of degenerated rhabdomeres was 3.82 ± 0.09. Aβ42 Drosophila treated with GE (1 and 5 mg/g of Drosophila media) had significantly rescued rhabdomere in each ommatidium, with an increase of 0.49 and 0.97 rhabdomere count per ommatidium, respectively (Figure 2), which reflected a preventive effect of GE on neurodegeneration. The preventive effect was comparable to donepezil medication (10 μmol/g of Drosophila media), in which there was an increase of 0.78 rhabdomere count per ommatidium than the Aβ42 Drosophila.


The Aqueous Extract of Rhizome of Gastrodia elata Protected Drosophila and PC12 Cells against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity.

Ng CF, Ko CH, Koon CM, Xian JW, Leung PC, Fung KP, Chan HY, Lau CB - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Rhabdomere count in the pseudopupil assay. Regular array of 7 ommatidia (bright red spots) was observed in OregonR eyes. Degeneration of ommatidia was observed in the Aβ42 group, while the degeneration is improved by GE or donepezil treatments. ###P < 0.001 relative to OregonR; ***P < 0.001 relative to Aβ42 Drosophila with no treatment by one-way ANOVA. Results are the means ± SEM from 3 independent crosses. One hundred ommatidia were observed from 10 eyes of 5 Drosophila from each group in each trial.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794658&req=5

fig2: Rhabdomere count in the pseudopupil assay. Regular array of 7 ommatidia (bright red spots) was observed in OregonR eyes. Degeneration of ommatidia was observed in the Aβ42 group, while the degeneration is improved by GE or donepezil treatments. ###P < 0.001 relative to OregonR; ***P < 0.001 relative to Aβ42 Drosophila with no treatment by one-way ANOVA. Results are the means ± SEM from 3 independent crosses. One hundred ommatidia were observed from 10 eyes of 5 Drosophila from each group in each trial.
Mentions: We analyzed the effect of Aβ42 on degeneration of retinal tissue of Drosophila, which were mainly neurons. Aβ42 Drosophila contained significantly more degenerating rhabdomeres, compared with OregonR. The number of degenerated rhabdomeres was 3.82 ± 0.09. Aβ42 Drosophila treated with GE (1 and 5 mg/g of Drosophila media) had significantly rescued rhabdomere in each ommatidium, with an increase of 0.49 and 0.97 rhabdomere count per ommatidium, respectively (Figure 2), which reflected a preventive effect of GE on neurodegeneration. The preventive effect was comparable to donepezil medication (10 μmol/g of Drosophila media), in which there was an increase of 0.78 rhabdomere count per ommatidium than the Aβ42 Drosophila.

Bottom Line: In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media)-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the A β -expressing control (all P < 0.05).GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity.In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the A β -induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong ; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry & Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

ABSTRACT
This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE) aqueous extract on beta-amyloid(A β )-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Drosophila mutants with A β -induced neurodegeneration in pan-neuron and ommatidia were used to determine the efficacy of GE. The antiapoptotic and antioxidative mechanisms of GE were also studied in A β -treated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media)-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the A β -expressing control (all P < 0.05). In vitro studies illustrated that GE increased the cell viability of A β -treated PC12 cells in dose-dependent manner, probably through attenuation of A β -induced oxidative and apoptotic stress. GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the A β -induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress. GE aqueous extract could be developed as a promising herbal agent for neuroprotection and novel adjuvant therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus