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Prevention of atherosclerosis progression by 9-cis-β-carotene rich alga Dunaliella in apoE-deficient mice.

Harari A, Abecassis R, Relevi N, Levi Z, Ben-Amotz A, Kamari Y, Harats D, Shaish A - Biomed Res Int (2013)

Bottom Line: β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease.In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group.The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Bert W. Strassburger Lipid Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 5265601 Ramat-Gan, Israel ; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 Tel-Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

Aims: The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice.

Methods: In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old) were allocated into 3 groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%); (3) low-fat diet +  β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old) with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3) high fat-diet; (4) high-fat diet + Dunaliella.

Results: In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Plasma cholesterol levels in apoE−/− mice fed (a) a low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dunaliella (Dun), or low-fat diet + β-Carotene-deficient Dunaliella (BC def Dun) (first experiment); (b) low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dun, high-fat diet or high-fat diet + Dun (second experiment). (c) FPLC chromatogram of the groups (second experiment). Values are means ± SE, n = 7–15 in each group. Means at a time without a common letter differ, P < 0.05.
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fig2: Plasma cholesterol levels in apoE−/− mice fed (a) a low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dunaliella (Dun), or low-fat diet + β-Carotene-deficient Dunaliella (BC def Dun) (first experiment); (b) low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dun, high-fat diet or high-fat diet + Dun (second experiment). (c) FPLC chromatogram of the groups (second experiment). Values are means ± SE, n = 7–15 in each group. Means at a time without a common letter differ, P < 0.05.

Mentions: To study the effect of Dunaliella on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, we measured fasting plasma lipid levels. The Dunaliella powder did not affect plasma cholesterol levels in young or old apoE−/− mice fed a low-fat diet (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). In contrast, in old apoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet (second experiment), the Dunaliella powder significantly inhibited plasma cholesterol elevation compared to control, untreated mice (Figure 2(b)), (598 ± 64 and 942 ± 108 mg/dL, resp., P = 0.007). Analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that the reduction of plasma cholesterol in Dunaliella-treated mice is due to reduced cholesterol levels in Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) (Figure 2(c)). In contrast to the plasma cholesterol lowering effect of Dunaliella, there was no effect on plasma triglyceride levels (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)), regardless of the type of diet. Interestingly, a β-Carotene-deficient Dunaliella powder elevated plasma triglyceride levels (Figure 3(a)).


Prevention of atherosclerosis progression by 9-cis-β-carotene rich alga Dunaliella in apoE-deficient mice.

Harari A, Abecassis R, Relevi N, Levi Z, Ben-Amotz A, Kamari Y, Harats D, Shaish A - Biomed Res Int (2013)

Plasma cholesterol levels in apoE−/− mice fed (a) a low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dunaliella (Dun), or low-fat diet + β-Carotene-deficient Dunaliella (BC def Dun) (first experiment); (b) low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dun, high-fat diet or high-fat diet + Dun (second experiment). (c) FPLC chromatogram of the groups (second experiment). Values are means ± SE, n = 7–15 in each group. Means at a time without a common letter differ, P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794645&req=5

fig2: Plasma cholesterol levels in apoE−/− mice fed (a) a low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dunaliella (Dun), or low-fat diet + β-Carotene-deficient Dunaliella (BC def Dun) (first experiment); (b) low-fat diet, low-fat diet + Dun, high-fat diet or high-fat diet + Dun (second experiment). (c) FPLC chromatogram of the groups (second experiment). Values are means ± SE, n = 7–15 in each group. Means at a time without a common letter differ, P < 0.05.
Mentions: To study the effect of Dunaliella on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, we measured fasting plasma lipid levels. The Dunaliella powder did not affect plasma cholesterol levels in young or old apoE−/− mice fed a low-fat diet (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). In contrast, in old apoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet (second experiment), the Dunaliella powder significantly inhibited plasma cholesterol elevation compared to control, untreated mice (Figure 2(b)), (598 ± 64 and 942 ± 108 mg/dL, resp., P = 0.007). Analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that the reduction of plasma cholesterol in Dunaliella-treated mice is due to reduced cholesterol levels in Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) (Figure 2(c)). In contrast to the plasma cholesterol lowering effect of Dunaliella, there was no effect on plasma triglyceride levels (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)), regardless of the type of diet. Interestingly, a β-Carotene-deficient Dunaliella powder elevated plasma triglyceride levels (Figure 3(a)).

Bottom Line: β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease.In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group.The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Bert W. Strassburger Lipid Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 5265601 Ramat-Gan, Israel ; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 Tel-Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

Aims: The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice.

Methods: In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old) were allocated into 3 groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%); (3) low-fat diet +  β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old) with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3) high fat-diet; (4) high-fat diet + Dunaliella.

Results: In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus