Limits...
Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell.

Jang SI, Lee YW, Cho CK, Yoo HS, Jang JH - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7) were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE).Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%), compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%).Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: East-West Cancer Center, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon 302-122, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30  μ g/mL), which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7) were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE). Furthermore, several genes implicated in cell cycle progression (CDCA3, CDCA8, CABLES2, CDC25B, CNNM3, and CCNK) showed decreased expression in HepG2 cells treated with EMGE. Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%), compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%). Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 2 downregulated genes: Cyclin K and Cyclin M.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794629&req=5

fig3: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 2 downregulated genes: Cyclin K and Cyclin M.

Mentions: As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the expression level of the 3 selected upregulated genes (cyp450 (73-fold), caspase-4 (6-fold), and caspase-7 (3-fold)) significantly increased upon treatment with EMGE. Conversely, the expression of the 2 downregulated genes (Cyclin M (4-fold), Cyclin K (12-fold)) decreased. These results indicate that the real-time RT-PCR results are highly consistent with the microarray data.


Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell.

Jang SI, Lee YW, Cho CK, Yoo HS, Jang JH - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 2 downregulated genes: Cyclin K and Cyclin M.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3794629&req=5

fig3: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 2 downregulated genes: Cyclin K and Cyclin M.
Mentions: As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the expression level of the 3 selected upregulated genes (cyp450 (73-fold), caspase-4 (6-fold), and caspase-7 (3-fold)) significantly increased upon treatment with EMGE. Conversely, the expression of the 2 downregulated genes (Cyclin M (4-fold), Cyclin K (12-fold)) decreased. These results indicate that the real-time RT-PCR results are highly consistent with the microarray data.

Bottom Line: Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7) were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE).Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%), compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%).Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: East-West Cancer Center, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon 302-122, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30  μ g/mL), which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7) were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE). Furthermore, several genes implicated in cell cycle progression (CDCA3, CDCA8, CABLES2, CDC25B, CNNM3, and CCNK) showed decreased expression in HepG2 cells treated with EMGE. Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%), compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%). Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus