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Cationic host defence peptides: potential as antiviral therapeutics.

Gwyer Findlay E, Currie SM, Davidson DJ - BioDrugs (2013)

Bottom Line: Cationic host defence peptides, such as defensins and cathelicidins, are important components of innate immunity with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory capabilities.In recent years they have also been shown to be natural, broad-spectrum antivirals against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus.Here we review the antiviral properties of several families of these host peptides and their potential to inform the design of novel therapeutics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, Scotland, UK.

ABSTRACT
There is a pressing need to develop new antiviral treatments; of the 60 drugs currently available, half are aimed at HIV-1 and the remainder target only a further six viruses. This demand has led to the emergence of possible peptide therapies, with 15 currently in clinical trials. Advancements in understanding the antiviral potential of naturally occurring host defence peptides highlights the potential of a whole new class of molecules to be considered as antiviral therapeutics. Cationic host defence peptides, such as defensins and cathelicidins, are important components of innate immunity with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory capabilities. In recent years they have also been shown to be natural, broad-spectrum antivirals against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus. Here we review the antiviral properties of several families of these host peptides and their potential to inform the design of novel therapeutics.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Antiviral activities of β-defensins. β-Defensins have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccinia virus (VV), via a range of different mechanisms
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Fig2: Antiviral activities of β-defensins. β-Defensins have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccinia virus (VV), via a range of different mechanisms

Mentions: β-Defensins can be induced in both humans and mice following viral infection. mBD3 and 4 (orthologues of HBD2) are murine β-defensins which are induced in vivo during influenza virus (IAV) infection in mice [99], whereas HIV-1 infection induced HBD2 and 3 expression in normal human oral epithelium, even if the virus was not replicating [100]. Similarly, human rhinovirus (HRV) replication in human bronchial epithelial cells induces NF-κB-dependent HBD2 and 3 expression (but not HBD1) [101, 102], whereas respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can induce HBD2 in an NF-κB-dependent, but IFN type 1-independent manner in human lung epithelial cells [103]. The extent to which these innate responses are functionally effective against the viral pathogens is starting to be elucidated (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Cationic host defence peptides: potential as antiviral therapeutics.

Gwyer Findlay E, Currie SM, Davidson DJ - BioDrugs (2013)

Antiviral activities of β-defensins. β-Defensins have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccinia virus (VV), via a range of different mechanisms
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3775153&req=5

Fig2: Antiviral activities of β-defensins. β-Defensins have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccinia virus (VV), via a range of different mechanisms
Mentions: β-Defensins can be induced in both humans and mice following viral infection. mBD3 and 4 (orthologues of HBD2) are murine β-defensins which are induced in vivo during influenza virus (IAV) infection in mice [99], whereas HIV-1 infection induced HBD2 and 3 expression in normal human oral epithelium, even if the virus was not replicating [100]. Similarly, human rhinovirus (HRV) replication in human bronchial epithelial cells induces NF-κB-dependent HBD2 and 3 expression (but not HBD1) [101, 102], whereas respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can induce HBD2 in an NF-κB-dependent, but IFN type 1-independent manner in human lung epithelial cells [103]. The extent to which these innate responses are functionally effective against the viral pathogens is starting to be elucidated (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Cationic host defence peptides, such as defensins and cathelicidins, are important components of innate immunity with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory capabilities.In recent years they have also been shown to be natural, broad-spectrum antivirals against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus.Here we review the antiviral properties of several families of these host peptides and their potential to inform the design of novel therapeutics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, Scotland, UK.

ABSTRACT
There is a pressing need to develop new antiviral treatments; of the 60 drugs currently available, half are aimed at HIV-1 and the remainder target only a further six viruses. This demand has led to the emergence of possible peptide therapies, with 15 currently in clinical trials. Advancements in understanding the antiviral potential of naturally occurring host defence peptides highlights the potential of a whole new class of molecules to be considered as antiviral therapeutics. Cationic host defence peptides, such as defensins and cathelicidins, are important components of innate immunity with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory capabilities. In recent years they have also been shown to be natural, broad-spectrum antivirals against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus. Here we review the antiviral properties of several families of these host peptides and their potential to inform the design of novel therapeutics.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus