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A canine model of femoral head osteonecrosis induced by an ethanol injection navigated by a novel template.

Wang C, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yuan C, Liu D, Pei Y, Li X, Wu Z, Li Y, Guo Z - Int J Med Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol.Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively.Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China; ; 2. Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, China;

ABSTRACT
There is no consensus on how to establish models of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in large mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol. Using three-dimensional reconstruction and rapid prototyping manufacturing techniques, a new template was designed and processed to navigate the ethanol injection. The femoral heads of 18 adult dogs were injected with ethanol. Macroscopic, X-ray and histological examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after the operation. Further, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide scans were performed 6 weeks postoperatively. Three weeks after the operation, the femoral heads showed evidence of osteonecrosis including increasing numbers of empty lacunae, decreased hematopoietic cells, and destroyed adipose tissue in the medullary cavity, which increased in severity at the subsequent follow-up evaluations at 6 and 9 weeks. Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively. Image analysis also revealed evidence of osteonecrosis, such as several osteopenic areas with sclerotic rims on the X-ray, several areas of low bone mineral density with sclerosis on the CT scan, increased uptake of the nuclide species in MRI, and an inhomogeneous long T2 signal on the radioisotopic images. Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH. This model can be used to test new treatment modalities for human ONFH.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Specific changes seen in radiographic images. A: the control femoral head of control lateral; B: mild flattening of the articular cartilage (black arrows); C: a fractured femoral head (black arrows).
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Figure 6: Specific changes seen in radiographic images. A: the control femoral head of control lateral; B: mild flattening of the articular cartilage (black arrows); C: a fractured femoral head (black arrows).

Mentions: Three weeks after the operation, six animals underwent X-ray examination. All of the operated femoral heads showed a different extent of inhomogeneous changes, and four of them showed several osteopenic areas (Figure 5B, blue arrows), which were accompanied with sclerotic rims (Figure 5B, white arrows). But, all of these changes were not obvious. At 6 weeks, two of the six operated femoral heads demonstrated mild segmental flattening (Figure 6B, black arrows). One animal developed a femoral head fracture (Figure 6C) on the experimental side. At 9 weeks, two of the operated femoral heads showed joint space narrowing with secondary osteoarthritis.


A canine model of femoral head osteonecrosis induced by an ethanol injection navigated by a novel template.

Wang C, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yuan C, Liu D, Pei Y, Li X, Wu Z, Li Y, Guo Z - Int J Med Sci (2013)

Specific changes seen in radiographic images. A: the control femoral head of control lateral; B: mild flattening of the articular cartilage (black arrows); C: a fractured femoral head (black arrows).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3775100&req=5

Figure 6: Specific changes seen in radiographic images. A: the control femoral head of control lateral; B: mild flattening of the articular cartilage (black arrows); C: a fractured femoral head (black arrows).
Mentions: Three weeks after the operation, six animals underwent X-ray examination. All of the operated femoral heads showed a different extent of inhomogeneous changes, and four of them showed several osteopenic areas (Figure 5B, blue arrows), which were accompanied with sclerotic rims (Figure 5B, white arrows). But, all of these changes were not obvious. At 6 weeks, two of the six operated femoral heads demonstrated mild segmental flattening (Figure 6B, black arrows). One animal developed a femoral head fracture (Figure 6C) on the experimental side. At 9 weeks, two of the operated femoral heads showed joint space narrowing with secondary osteoarthritis.

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol.Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively.Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China; ; 2. Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, China;

ABSTRACT
There is no consensus on how to establish models of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in large mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol. Using three-dimensional reconstruction and rapid prototyping manufacturing techniques, a new template was designed and processed to navigate the ethanol injection. The femoral heads of 18 adult dogs were injected with ethanol. Macroscopic, X-ray and histological examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after the operation. Further, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide scans were performed 6 weeks postoperatively. Three weeks after the operation, the femoral heads showed evidence of osteonecrosis including increasing numbers of empty lacunae, decreased hematopoietic cells, and destroyed adipose tissue in the medullary cavity, which increased in severity at the subsequent follow-up evaluations at 6 and 9 weeks. Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively. Image analysis also revealed evidence of osteonecrosis, such as several osteopenic areas with sclerotic rims on the X-ray, several areas of low bone mineral density with sclerosis on the CT scan, increased uptake of the nuclide species in MRI, and an inhomogeneous long T2 signal on the radioisotopic images. Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH. This model can be used to test new treatment modalities for human ONFH.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus