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A canine model of femoral head osteonecrosis induced by an ethanol injection navigated by a novel template.

Wang C, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yuan C, Liu D, Pei Y, Li X, Wu Z, Li Y, Guo Z - Int J Med Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol.Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively.Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China; ; 2. Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, China;

ABSTRACT
There is no consensus on how to establish models of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in large mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol. Using three-dimensional reconstruction and rapid prototyping manufacturing techniques, a new template was designed and processed to navigate the ethanol injection. The femoral heads of 18 adult dogs were injected with ethanol. Macroscopic, X-ray and histological examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after the operation. Further, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide scans were performed 6 weeks postoperatively. Three weeks after the operation, the femoral heads showed evidence of osteonecrosis including increasing numbers of empty lacunae, decreased hematopoietic cells, and destroyed adipose tissue in the medullary cavity, which increased in severity at the subsequent follow-up evaluations at 6 and 9 weeks. Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively. Image analysis also revealed evidence of osteonecrosis, such as several osteopenic areas with sclerotic rims on the X-ray, several areas of low bone mineral density with sclerosis on the CT scan, increased uptake of the nuclide species in MRI, and an inhomogeneous long T2 signal on the radioisotopic images. Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH. This model can be used to test new treatment modalities for human ONFH.

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A: the slices were divided into four parts; B: the areas used to count empty lacunae.
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Figure 4: A: the slices were divided into four parts; B: the areas used to count empty lacunae.

Mentions: For histological examination, each animal was administered with excessive xylazine hydrochloride (6 mg/kg) intravenously and the femoral heads were harvested, then the femoral heads were cut into 3 mm-thick slices parallel to the femoral shaft. All specimens were fixed in 10% formalin solution for 72 hours, and then decalcified in EDTA solution for 2 to 3 weeks. The slices were divided into four parts, designated I, II, III and IV (Figure 4A), and then each part was embedded into paraffin and cut into 5 µm thick slices. The slices were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and examined under a light microscope. The amounts of hematopoietic cells and fractured trabeculae, neogenic vessels as well as the grade of fibrosis were evaluated and documented by an experienced pathologist who was blinded to the experiment (level rank grade: none -, mild+, moderate ++, much +++).


A canine model of femoral head osteonecrosis induced by an ethanol injection navigated by a novel template.

Wang C, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yuan C, Liu D, Pei Y, Li X, Wu Z, Li Y, Guo Z - Int J Med Sci (2013)

A: the slices were divided into four parts; B: the areas used to count empty lacunae.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3775100&req=5

Figure 4: A: the slices were divided into four parts; B: the areas used to count empty lacunae.
Mentions: For histological examination, each animal was administered with excessive xylazine hydrochloride (6 mg/kg) intravenously and the femoral heads were harvested, then the femoral heads were cut into 3 mm-thick slices parallel to the femoral shaft. All specimens were fixed in 10% formalin solution for 72 hours, and then decalcified in EDTA solution for 2 to 3 weeks. The slices were divided into four parts, designated I, II, III and IV (Figure 4A), and then each part was embedded into paraffin and cut into 5 µm thick slices. The slices were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and examined under a light microscope. The amounts of hematopoietic cells and fractured trabeculae, neogenic vessels as well as the grade of fibrosis were evaluated and documented by an experienced pathologist who was blinded to the experiment (level rank grade: none -, mild+, moderate ++, much +++).

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol.Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively.Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China; ; 2. Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, China;

ABSTRACT
There is no consensus on how to establish models of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in large mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel canine model of ONFH, induced by a navigated injection of absolute ethanol. Using three-dimensional reconstruction and rapid prototyping manufacturing techniques, a new template was designed and processed to navigate the ethanol injection. The femoral heads of 18 adult dogs were injected with ethanol. Macroscopic, X-ray and histological examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after the operation. Further, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide scans were performed 6 weeks postoperatively. Three weeks after the operation, the femoral heads showed evidence of osteonecrosis including increasing numbers of empty lacunae, decreased hematopoietic cells, and destroyed adipose tissue in the medullary cavity, which increased in severity at the subsequent follow-up evaluations at 6 and 9 weeks. Fractured trabeculae and fibrous tissue were noted 9 weeks postoperatively. Image analysis also revealed evidence of osteonecrosis, such as several osteopenic areas with sclerotic rims on the X-ray, several areas of low bone mineral density with sclerosis on the CT scan, increased uptake of the nuclide species in MRI, and an inhomogeneous long T2 signal on the radioisotopic images. Ethanol injection navigated by our novel template was successful in establishing a canine model of ONFH. This model can be used to test new treatment modalities for human ONFH.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus