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Environmental dermatology: skin manifestations of injuries caused by invertebrate aquatic animals.

Haddad V - An Bras Dermatol (2013 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals.The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions.The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians).

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ABSTRACT
Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals. The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians). In this review, we discuss the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries caused by marine and freshwater invertebrates, focusing on first aid measures and diagnosis for dermatologists and professionals in coastal areas.

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Top-left: leeches. Polychaetes (brushworms and smooth worms). Marine worms causeinjury through biting and penetration by the body bristles. Photos: Vidal HaddadJunior
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f07: Top-left: leeches. Polychaetes (brushworms and smooth worms). Marine worms causeinjury through biting and penetration by the body bristles. Photos: Vidal HaddadJunior

Mentions: Leeches belong to the subclass Hirudinea (Figure7). These worms, which can reach 10cm in length, are cosmopolitan and found infreshwater (although they may exist in marine and even arboreal environments). Theparasite species clings firmly onto creatures via oral and caudal suckers, and jawsequipped with sharp teeth, feeding on blood. A leech can ingest up to ten times itsweight in blood, but does not cause major problems in the victims. The therapeutic useof these worms was widespread in antiquity, when bloodletting was carried out inpatients, using the species Hirudo medicinalis. The saliva of leechescontains hirudin, an anticoagulant substance that prevents blood clotting in theirdigestive tract. Allergies and infections may also occur.2-5


Environmental dermatology: skin manifestations of injuries caused by invertebrate aquatic animals.

Haddad V - An Bras Dermatol (2013 Jul-Aug)

Top-left: leeches. Polychaetes (brushworms and smooth worms). Marine worms causeinjury through biting and penetration by the body bristles. Photos: Vidal HaddadJunior
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760923&req=5

f07: Top-left: leeches. Polychaetes (brushworms and smooth worms). Marine worms causeinjury through biting and penetration by the body bristles. Photos: Vidal HaddadJunior
Mentions: Leeches belong to the subclass Hirudinea (Figure7). These worms, which can reach 10cm in length, are cosmopolitan and found infreshwater (although they may exist in marine and even arboreal environments). Theparasite species clings firmly onto creatures via oral and caudal suckers, and jawsequipped with sharp teeth, feeding on blood. A leech can ingest up to ten times itsweight in blood, but does not cause major problems in the victims. The therapeutic useof these worms was widespread in antiquity, when bloodletting was carried out inpatients, using the species Hirudo medicinalis. The saliva of leechescontains hirudin, an anticoagulant substance that prevents blood clotting in theirdigestive tract. Allergies and infections may also occur.2-5

Bottom Line: Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals.The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions.The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals. The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians). In this review, we discuss the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries caused by marine and freshwater invertebrates, focusing on first aid measures and diagnosis for dermatologists and professionals in coastal areas.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus