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Environmental dermatology: skin manifestations of injuries caused by invertebrate aquatic animals.

Haddad V - An Bras Dermatol (2013 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals.The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions.The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals. The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians). In this review, we discuss the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries caused by marine and freshwater invertebrates, focusing on first aid measures and diagnosis for dermatologists and professionals in coastal areas.

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Linear and long crisscrossed plaques after the contact of a bather with aPortuguese man-of-war. In detail: Physalia physalis, thePortuguese man-of-war. Photos: Shirlei Pacheco and André Rossetto
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f03: Linear and long crisscrossed plaques after the contact of a bather with aPortuguese man-of-war. In detail: Physalia physalis, thePortuguese man-of-war. Photos: Shirlei Pacheco and André Rossetto

Mentions: The signs and symptoms of envenomation depend of a toxic action (immediate) and anallergic action (immediate and delayed). Intense and immediate pain occurs in areas thatcome into contact with the animal, along with a burning sensation (but it should not becalled a burn, because is an action of toxins), a linear erythematous papular rash,urticariform, with crossed lines. In this initial stage, there may be horripilation,probably from alteration of the sympathetic nervous system.1-5 Within a matterof hours, the area may present vesicles, blisters and even superficial necrosis. Thepain subsists for hours and systemic phenomena can be installed, such as generaldisorganization of nerve activity, heart failure (rare), shock, respiratory failure,hemolysis and renal abnormalitie, which are responsible for cardiopulmonary deaths insevere cases. Cubomedusae (Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and C. quadrigatus, Tamoya haplonema and others) and the Portugueseman-of-war (Physalia physalis and P. utriculus) cancause accidents of this magnitude (Figures 3 and4).11-15 There are hundreds ofdocumented deaths caused by contact with cubomedusae worldwide. Most of them are causedby the species Chironex fleckeri, in the Indo-Pacific region.10 There are also reports of deaths relatedto accidents with Portuguese men-of-war (Physalia physalis) andcubomedusa Chiropsalmus quadrumanus, in the Atlantic Ocean.2,16


Environmental dermatology: skin manifestations of injuries caused by invertebrate aquatic animals.

Haddad V - An Bras Dermatol (2013 Jul-Aug)

Linear and long crisscrossed plaques after the contact of a bather with aPortuguese man-of-war. In detail: Physalia physalis, thePortuguese man-of-war. Photos: Shirlei Pacheco and André Rossetto
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760923&req=5

f03: Linear and long crisscrossed plaques after the contact of a bather with aPortuguese man-of-war. In detail: Physalia physalis, thePortuguese man-of-war. Photos: Shirlei Pacheco and André Rossetto
Mentions: The signs and symptoms of envenomation depend of a toxic action (immediate) and anallergic action (immediate and delayed). Intense and immediate pain occurs in areas thatcome into contact with the animal, along with a burning sensation (but it should not becalled a burn, because is an action of toxins), a linear erythematous papular rash,urticariform, with crossed lines. In this initial stage, there may be horripilation,probably from alteration of the sympathetic nervous system.1-5 Within a matterof hours, the area may present vesicles, blisters and even superficial necrosis. Thepain subsists for hours and systemic phenomena can be installed, such as generaldisorganization of nerve activity, heart failure (rare), shock, respiratory failure,hemolysis and renal abnormalitie, which are responsible for cardiopulmonary deaths insevere cases. Cubomedusae (Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and C. quadrigatus, Tamoya haplonema and others) and the Portugueseman-of-war (Physalia physalis and P. utriculus) cancause accidents of this magnitude (Figures 3 and4).11-15 There are hundreds ofdocumented deaths caused by contact with cubomedusae worldwide. Most of them are causedby the species Chironex fleckeri, in the Indo-Pacific region.10 There are also reports of deaths relatedto accidents with Portuguese men-of-war (Physalia physalis) andcubomedusa Chiropsalmus quadrumanus, in the Atlantic Ocean.2,16

Bottom Line: Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals.The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions.The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals. The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians). In this review, we discuss the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries caused by marine and freshwater invertebrates, focusing on first aid measures and diagnosis for dermatologists and professionals in coastal areas.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus