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Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

Aubertot JN, Robin MH - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment.In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems.In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1248 Agrosystèmes et Agricultures, Gestion des Ressources, Innovations et Ruralités, Castanet-Tolosan, France ; Université Toulouse, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1248 Agrosystèmes et Agricultures, Gestion des Ressources, Innovations et Ruralités, Castanet-Tolosan, France.

ABSTRACT
The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests) in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i) develop, and to a lesser extent ii) combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies (vertical integration), there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration). Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator), a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat). In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Overall output attributes of IPSIM: description of an injury profile (screenshot of the DEXi software).For the sake of simplicity, only 3 pests are represented in this figure. The severity of a given pest is first calculated independently by IPSIM as if no other pest was present. The aggregated severity of a given pest is then calculated by taking into account the combined effects of all other pests. This is done by considering the theoretical effect of one pest on another according to five levels: high facilitation, low facilitation, no effect, low reduction, high reduction.
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pone-0073202-g002: Overall output attributes of IPSIM: description of an injury profile (screenshot of the DEXi software).For the sake of simplicity, only 3 pests are represented in this figure. The severity of a given pest is first calculated independently by IPSIM as if no other pest was present. The aggregated severity of a given pest is then calculated by taking into account the combined effects of all other pests. This is done by considering the theoretical effect of one pest on another according to five levels: high facilitation, low facilitation, no effect, low reduction, high reduction.

Mentions: The structure of attributes that predict injury profiles is presented in Figure 2. Each injury can take a limited number of severity levels. For instance, 5 classes (very low, low, medium, high, very high) or 7 classes (nil, very low, low, medium, high, very high and maximum) can be considered in IPSIM. Even if only 10 pests and 5 severity levels are considered for a given crop, a theoretical number of 510 = 9.765625×106 possible injury profiles could thus be simulated with IPSIM. This number is only theoretical since some of these injury profiles are impossible due to interactions among pests. In order to take into account these interactions, IPSIM first calculates the severity for single pests independently, as if one pest only was present (Figure 2). Then, interactions between pests are taken into account according the level of each pest and a simple typology of interaction between two pests: high facilitation, low facilitation, no interaction, low reduction, high reduction (Table 1). Table 1 is used to calculate the overall effect of all other pests on the considered pest. Then, the number of pests with high facilitation, low facilitation, no effect, low reduction, high reduction is calculated (Figure 2) and the overall interactions are calculated according to the aggregating tables presented Table 2. Ultimately, the severity of each pest is calculated using the generic aggregating table presented in Table 3 as a function of the severity that would occur without any other pest, and the overall interactions calculated with the aggregating table presented in Table 2.


Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

Aubertot JN, Robin MH - PLoS ONE (2013)

Overall output attributes of IPSIM: description of an injury profile (screenshot of the DEXi software).For the sake of simplicity, only 3 pests are represented in this figure. The severity of a given pest is first calculated independently by IPSIM as if no other pest was present. The aggregated severity of a given pest is then calculated by taking into account the combined effects of all other pests. This is done by considering the theoretical effect of one pest on another according to five levels: high facilitation, low facilitation, no effect, low reduction, high reduction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760918&req=5

pone-0073202-g002: Overall output attributes of IPSIM: description of an injury profile (screenshot of the DEXi software).For the sake of simplicity, only 3 pests are represented in this figure. The severity of a given pest is first calculated independently by IPSIM as if no other pest was present. The aggregated severity of a given pest is then calculated by taking into account the combined effects of all other pests. This is done by considering the theoretical effect of one pest on another according to five levels: high facilitation, low facilitation, no effect, low reduction, high reduction.
Mentions: The structure of attributes that predict injury profiles is presented in Figure 2. Each injury can take a limited number of severity levels. For instance, 5 classes (very low, low, medium, high, very high) or 7 classes (nil, very low, low, medium, high, very high and maximum) can be considered in IPSIM. Even if only 10 pests and 5 severity levels are considered for a given crop, a theoretical number of 510 = 9.765625×106 possible injury profiles could thus be simulated with IPSIM. This number is only theoretical since some of these injury profiles are impossible due to interactions among pests. In order to take into account these interactions, IPSIM first calculates the severity for single pests independently, as if one pest only was present (Figure 2). Then, interactions between pests are taken into account according the level of each pest and a simple typology of interaction between two pests: high facilitation, low facilitation, no interaction, low reduction, high reduction (Table 1). Table 1 is used to calculate the overall effect of all other pests on the considered pest. Then, the number of pests with high facilitation, low facilitation, no effect, low reduction, high reduction is calculated (Figure 2) and the overall interactions are calculated according to the aggregating tables presented Table 2. Ultimately, the severity of each pest is calculated using the generic aggregating table presented in Table 3 as a function of the severity that would occur without any other pest, and the overall interactions calculated with the aggregating table presented in Table 2.

Bottom Line: Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment.In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems.In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1248 Agrosystèmes et Agricultures, Gestion des Ressources, Innovations et Ruralités, Castanet-Tolosan, France ; Université Toulouse, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1248 Agrosystèmes et Agricultures, Gestion des Ressources, Innovations et Ruralités, Castanet-Tolosan, France.

ABSTRACT
The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests) in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i) develop, and to a lesser extent ii) combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies (vertical integration), there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration). Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator), a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat). In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus