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Geographically structured populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia correlate with HIV status and show a clonal population structure.

Khayhan K, Hagen F, Pan W, Simwami S, Fisher MC, Wahyuningsih R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, Ikeda R, Taj-Aldeen SJ, Khan Z, Ip M, Imran D, Sjam R, Sriburee P, Liao W, Chaicumpar K, Vuddhakul V, Meyer W, Trilles L, van Iersel LJ, Meis JF, Klaassen CH, Boekhout T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded.However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates.Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand ; CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Department of Yeast and Basidiomycete Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex was used to analyse nucleotide polymorphisms among 476 isolates of this pathogen obtained from 8 Asian countries. Population genetic analysis showed that the Asian C. neoformans var. grubii population shows limited genetic diversity and demonstrates a largely clonal mode of reproduction when compared with the global MLST dataset. HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded. However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates. Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Unrooted Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of each sequence type (ST) found among the global isolates.Numbers at each branch indicate bootstrap values >50%, based on 1,000 replicates. Each color rectangle represents the geographic origin of isolates.
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pone-0072222-g003: Unrooted Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of each sequence type (ST) found among the global isolates.Numbers at each branch indicate bootstrap values >50%, based on 1,000 replicates. Each color rectangle represents the geographic origin of isolates.

Mentions: The global C. neoformans var. grubii MLST dataset that contained 179 isolates originating from Africa (n = 45), North/South America (n = 31), Asia (n = 55) and Europe (n = 48) was compared using the goeBURST algorithm with the isolates from Asia. Most Asian C. neoformans isolates clustered together in one group, but a few Asian isolates showed a scattered distribution. Two clusters of African isolates and one cluster of European isolates were observed. Some of isolates from those regions showed a scattered distribution as did the North/South American isolates (Figure 1C). Phylogenetic analysis using Neighbor-joining showed three clades among the global C. neoformans var. grubii isolates. Clade I/VNII contained isolates from Africa, North/South America, Asia and Europe, clade II/VNB contained 17 STs from African isolates and one ST comprising European isolates, and almost all Asian STs occurred in clade I/VNI that also contained isolates from other global regions (nAfrica  = 27, nNorth/South America  = 23, nEurope  = 45) (Figure 3).


Geographically structured populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia correlate with HIV status and show a clonal population structure.

Khayhan K, Hagen F, Pan W, Simwami S, Fisher MC, Wahyuningsih R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, Ikeda R, Taj-Aldeen SJ, Khan Z, Ip M, Imran D, Sjam R, Sriburee P, Liao W, Chaicumpar K, Vuddhakul V, Meyer W, Trilles L, van Iersel LJ, Meis JF, Klaassen CH, Boekhout T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Unrooted Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of each sequence type (ST) found among the global isolates.Numbers at each branch indicate bootstrap values >50%, based on 1,000 replicates. Each color rectangle represents the geographic origin of isolates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760895&req=5

pone-0072222-g003: Unrooted Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of each sequence type (ST) found among the global isolates.Numbers at each branch indicate bootstrap values >50%, based on 1,000 replicates. Each color rectangle represents the geographic origin of isolates.
Mentions: The global C. neoformans var. grubii MLST dataset that contained 179 isolates originating from Africa (n = 45), North/South America (n = 31), Asia (n = 55) and Europe (n = 48) was compared using the goeBURST algorithm with the isolates from Asia. Most Asian C. neoformans isolates clustered together in one group, but a few Asian isolates showed a scattered distribution. Two clusters of African isolates and one cluster of European isolates were observed. Some of isolates from those regions showed a scattered distribution as did the North/South American isolates (Figure 1C). Phylogenetic analysis using Neighbor-joining showed three clades among the global C. neoformans var. grubii isolates. Clade I/VNII contained isolates from Africa, North/South America, Asia and Europe, clade II/VNB contained 17 STs from African isolates and one ST comprising European isolates, and almost all Asian STs occurred in clade I/VNI that also contained isolates from other global regions (nAfrica  = 27, nNorth/South America  = 23, nEurope  = 45) (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded.However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates.Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand ; CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Department of Yeast and Basidiomycete Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex was used to analyse nucleotide polymorphisms among 476 isolates of this pathogen obtained from 8 Asian countries. Population genetic analysis showed that the Asian C. neoformans var. grubii population shows limited genetic diversity and demonstrates a largely clonal mode of reproduction when compared with the global MLST dataset. HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded. However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates. Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus