Limits...
Geographically structured populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia correlate with HIV status and show a clonal population structure.

Khayhan K, Hagen F, Pan W, Simwami S, Fisher MC, Wahyuningsih R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, Ikeda R, Taj-Aldeen SJ, Khan Z, Ip M, Imran D, Sjam R, Sriburee P, Liao W, Chaicumpar K, Vuddhakul V, Meyer W, Trilles L, van Iersel LJ, Meis JF, Klaassen CH, Boekhout T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded.However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates.Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand ; CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Department of Yeast and Basidiomycete Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex was used to analyse nucleotide polymorphisms among 476 isolates of this pathogen obtained from 8 Asian countries. Population genetic analysis showed that the Asian C. neoformans var. grubii population shows limited genetic diversity and demonstrates a largely clonal mode of reproduction when compared with the global MLST dataset. HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded. However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates. Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Minimum spanning trees using the goeBURST algorithm showing MLST relationships among Asian C. neoformans var. grubii isolates.(A) Tree represents 476 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different countries. Each circle represents a unique genotype/sequence type (STs). The size of the circle corresponds to the number of isolates within that genotype. Different colors correspond to different countries; (B) Same as A, but now showing the genotypes from clinical and environmental sources; (C) Same as A and B, but with the addition of the genotypes of 179 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different continents (data from http://mlst.mycologylab.org and previous reports by Cogliati et al., 2013 [44] and Mihara et al., 2012 [16]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760895&req=5

pone-0072222-g001: Minimum spanning trees using the goeBURST algorithm showing MLST relationships among Asian C. neoformans var. grubii isolates.(A) Tree represents 476 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different countries. Each circle represents a unique genotype/sequence type (STs). The size of the circle corresponds to the number of isolates within that genotype. Different colors correspond to different countries; (B) Same as A, but now showing the genotypes from clinical and environmental sources; (C) Same as A and B, but with the addition of the genotypes of 179 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different continents (data from http://mlst.mycologylab.org and previous reports by Cogliati et al., 2013 [44] and Mihara et al., 2012 [16]).

Mentions: In order to determine the distribution of STs in different geographical locations, minimum spanning trees and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken based on allelic profiles using the goeBURST algorithm and analysis of concatenated sequences with the Neighbor-joining algorithm, respectively (Figure 1 and 2). Three linages were observed in the minimum spanning tree. Group 1 contained mostly isolates of STs 5, 186, 193 and 194 that originated from China, Hong Kong, and Japan, and also contained 30 out of 222 (13.6%) isolates from Thailand. Group 2 contained mostly isolates from Thailand (nā€Š=ā€Š184; 82.9%). The predominant STs in this group were ST4 and 6. Group 3 comprised most of the Indian and Indonesian isolates that belonged to STs 31, 77 and 93. (Figure 1A).


Geographically structured populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia correlate with HIV status and show a clonal population structure.

Khayhan K, Hagen F, Pan W, Simwami S, Fisher MC, Wahyuningsih R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, Ikeda R, Taj-Aldeen SJ, Khan Z, Ip M, Imran D, Sjam R, Sriburee P, Liao W, Chaicumpar K, Vuddhakul V, Meyer W, Trilles L, van Iersel LJ, Meis JF, Klaassen CH, Boekhout T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Minimum spanning trees using the goeBURST algorithm showing MLST relationships among Asian C. neoformans var. grubii isolates.(A) Tree represents 476 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different countries. Each circle represents a unique genotype/sequence type (STs). The size of the circle corresponds to the number of isolates within that genotype. Different colors correspond to different countries; (B) Same as A, but now showing the genotypes from clinical and environmental sources; (C) Same as A and B, but with the addition of the genotypes of 179 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different continents (data from http://mlst.mycologylab.org and previous reports by Cogliati et al., 2013 [44] and Mihara et al., 2012 [16]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760895&req=5

pone-0072222-g001: Minimum spanning trees using the goeBURST algorithm showing MLST relationships among Asian C. neoformans var. grubii isolates.(A) Tree represents 476 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different countries. Each circle represents a unique genotype/sequence type (STs). The size of the circle corresponds to the number of isolates within that genotype. Different colors correspond to different countries; (B) Same as A, but now showing the genotypes from clinical and environmental sources; (C) Same as A and B, but with the addition of the genotypes of 179 C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from different continents (data from http://mlst.mycologylab.org and previous reports by Cogliati et al., 2013 [44] and Mihara et al., 2012 [16]).
Mentions: In order to determine the distribution of STs in different geographical locations, minimum spanning trees and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken based on allelic profiles using the goeBURST algorithm and analysis of concatenated sequences with the Neighbor-joining algorithm, respectively (Figure 1 and 2). Three linages were observed in the minimum spanning tree. Group 1 contained mostly isolates of STs 5, 186, 193 and 194 that originated from China, Hong Kong, and Japan, and also contained 30 out of 222 (13.6%) isolates from Thailand. Group 2 contained mostly isolates from Thailand (nā€Š=ā€Š184; 82.9%). The predominant STs in this group were ST4 and 6. Group 3 comprised most of the Indian and Indonesian isolates that belonged to STs 31, 77 and 93. (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded.However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates.Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand ; CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Department of Yeast and Basidiomycete Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex was used to analyse nucleotide polymorphisms among 476 isolates of this pathogen obtained from 8 Asian countries. Population genetic analysis showed that the Asian C. neoformans var. grubii population shows limited genetic diversity and demonstrates a largely clonal mode of reproduction when compared with the global MLST dataset. HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded. However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates. Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus