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The latest succession of dinosaur tracksites in Europe: Hadrosaur ichnology, track production and palaeoenvironments.

Vila B, Oms O, Fondevilla V, Gaete R, Galobart A, Riera V, Canudo JI - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The hadrosaur tracks are significantly smaller in size than, but morphologically similar to, those of North America and Asia and are attributable to the ichnogenus Hadrosauropodus.The track succession, with more than 40 distinct track levels, indicates that hadrosaur footprints in the Ibero-Armorican region occur predominantly in the late Maaastrichtian (at least above the early Maastrichtian-late Maastrichtian boundary).The highest abundance is found noticeably found in the late Maastrichtian, with tracks occurring in the C29r magnetochron, within about the latest 300,000 years of the Cretaceous.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo Aragosaurus-IUCA, Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain ; Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
A comprehensive review and study of the rich dinosaur track record of the Tremp Formation in the southern Pyrenees of Spain (Southwestern Europe) shows a unique succession of footprint localities prior to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event. A description of some 30 new tracksites and data on sedimentary environments, track occurrence and preservation, ichnology and chronostratigraphy are provided. These new track localities represent various facies types within a diverse set of fluvial environments. The footprint discoveries mostly represent hadrosaurian and, less abundantly, to sauropod dinosaurs. The hadrosaur tracks are significantly smaller in size than, but morphologically similar to, those of North America and Asia and are attributable to the ichnogenus Hadrosauropodus. The track succession, with more than 40 distinct track levels, indicates that hadrosaur footprints in the Ibero-Armorican region occur predominantly in the late Maaastrichtian (at least above the early Maastrichtian-late Maastrichtian boundary). The highest abundance is found noticeably found in the late Maastrichtian, with tracks occurring in the C29r magnetochron, within about the latest 300,000 years of the Cretaceous.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Footprint morphologies and characteristics.(A, C) Hadrosaur pedal tracks (MCD-5140 and MCD-5142, respectively) from the La Llau de la Costa locality. (B) Hadrosaur pedal track from the Iscles-3 locality. (D) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Barranc de Guixers-1 locality. Note the impression of the distal ungual phalanx (arrow). (E) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Masia de Ramon Petjades locality. Note the triangular-shaped plantar impression produced by the heel pad (arrow). (F) Striae or scale scratch lines (arrow) on the margins of a toe in the MPZ 2012/829 cast from the Serraduy Norte locality. (G) Sauropod pedal track (cast) from the Barranc de Guixers-2 locality. Scale bar: 15 cm (in A–E); 5 cm (in F); scale tape in G in cm.
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pone-0072579-g005: Footprint morphologies and characteristics.(A, C) Hadrosaur pedal tracks (MCD-5140 and MCD-5142, respectively) from the La Llau de la Costa locality. (B) Hadrosaur pedal track from the Iscles-3 locality. (D) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Barranc de Guixers-1 locality. Note the impression of the distal ungual phalanx (arrow). (E) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Masia de Ramon Petjades locality. Note the triangular-shaped plantar impression produced by the heel pad (arrow). (F) Striae or scale scratch lines (arrow) on the margins of a toe in the MPZ 2012/829 cast from the Serraduy Norte locality. (G) Sauropod pedal track (cast) from the Barranc de Guixers-2 locality. Scale bar: 15 cm (in A–E); 5 cm (in F); scale tape in G in cm.

Mentions: The dinosaur tracks in the new localities are preserved in two main distinct modes: a) as natural casts (convex hyporeliefs) at the base of the sandstone beds, within the sandstone beds (i.e. in accretion surfaces), or within the mudstone levels, and b) as concave hyporeliefs on top of sandstone lenses or limestone beds. The tracks preserved as natural casts commonly occur as discrete, well-preserved moulds of footprint impressions but also as undetermined sandstone moulds on irregular surfaces, which represent “dinoturbated” track levels. Undetermined footprint casts show a globular, dish-like, rounded or ball-like shape (Fig. 4A–C) and are about 10–30 cm deep in the substrate. Well recognizable footprints reveal tridactyl, rounded or oval morphologies (Fig. 5). Some of them preserve striae or scale scratch lines on the margins of their toe or heel prints and/or slippage marks in the rear margin of the track (Fig. 5F). Some casts are three-dimensionally preserved (Fig. 4D–F) and noticeably deep (27 cm in MPZ 2012/827), revealing the complete shape of the pes or manus (MCD-5163). The sediment that fills the tracks is massive sandstone and occasionally displays burrows.


The latest succession of dinosaur tracksites in Europe: Hadrosaur ichnology, track production and palaeoenvironments.

Vila B, Oms O, Fondevilla V, Gaete R, Galobart A, Riera V, Canudo JI - PLoS ONE (2013)

Footprint morphologies and characteristics.(A, C) Hadrosaur pedal tracks (MCD-5140 and MCD-5142, respectively) from the La Llau de la Costa locality. (B) Hadrosaur pedal track from the Iscles-3 locality. (D) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Barranc de Guixers-1 locality. Note the impression of the distal ungual phalanx (arrow). (E) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Masia de Ramon Petjades locality. Note the triangular-shaped plantar impression produced by the heel pad (arrow). (F) Striae or scale scratch lines (arrow) on the margins of a toe in the MPZ 2012/829 cast from the Serraduy Norte locality. (G) Sauropod pedal track (cast) from the Barranc de Guixers-2 locality. Scale bar: 15 cm (in A–E); 5 cm (in F); scale tape in G in cm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3760888&req=5

pone-0072579-g005: Footprint morphologies and characteristics.(A, C) Hadrosaur pedal tracks (MCD-5140 and MCD-5142, respectively) from the La Llau de la Costa locality. (B) Hadrosaur pedal track from the Iscles-3 locality. (D) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Barranc de Guixers-1 locality. Note the impression of the distal ungual phalanx (arrow). (E) Hadrosaur pedal track (uncollected) from the Masia de Ramon Petjades locality. Note the triangular-shaped plantar impression produced by the heel pad (arrow). (F) Striae or scale scratch lines (arrow) on the margins of a toe in the MPZ 2012/829 cast from the Serraduy Norte locality. (G) Sauropod pedal track (cast) from the Barranc de Guixers-2 locality. Scale bar: 15 cm (in A–E); 5 cm (in F); scale tape in G in cm.
Mentions: The dinosaur tracks in the new localities are preserved in two main distinct modes: a) as natural casts (convex hyporeliefs) at the base of the sandstone beds, within the sandstone beds (i.e. in accretion surfaces), or within the mudstone levels, and b) as concave hyporeliefs on top of sandstone lenses or limestone beds. The tracks preserved as natural casts commonly occur as discrete, well-preserved moulds of footprint impressions but also as undetermined sandstone moulds on irregular surfaces, which represent “dinoturbated” track levels. Undetermined footprint casts show a globular, dish-like, rounded or ball-like shape (Fig. 4A–C) and are about 10–30 cm deep in the substrate. Well recognizable footprints reveal tridactyl, rounded or oval morphologies (Fig. 5). Some of them preserve striae or scale scratch lines on the margins of their toe or heel prints and/or slippage marks in the rear margin of the track (Fig. 5F). Some casts are three-dimensionally preserved (Fig. 4D–F) and noticeably deep (27 cm in MPZ 2012/827), revealing the complete shape of the pes or manus (MCD-5163). The sediment that fills the tracks is massive sandstone and occasionally displays burrows.

Bottom Line: The hadrosaur tracks are significantly smaller in size than, but morphologically similar to, those of North America and Asia and are attributable to the ichnogenus Hadrosauropodus.The track succession, with more than 40 distinct track levels, indicates that hadrosaur footprints in the Ibero-Armorican region occur predominantly in the late Maaastrichtian (at least above the early Maastrichtian-late Maastrichtian boundary).The highest abundance is found noticeably found in the late Maastrichtian, with tracks occurring in the C29r magnetochron, within about the latest 300,000 years of the Cretaceous.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo Aragosaurus-IUCA, Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain ; Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
A comprehensive review and study of the rich dinosaur track record of the Tremp Formation in the southern Pyrenees of Spain (Southwestern Europe) shows a unique succession of footprint localities prior to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event. A description of some 30 new tracksites and data on sedimentary environments, track occurrence and preservation, ichnology and chronostratigraphy are provided. These new track localities represent various facies types within a diverse set of fluvial environments. The footprint discoveries mostly represent hadrosaurian and, less abundantly, to sauropod dinosaurs. The hadrosaur tracks are significantly smaller in size than, but morphologically similar to, those of North America and Asia and are attributable to the ichnogenus Hadrosauropodus. The track succession, with more than 40 distinct track levels, indicates that hadrosaur footprints in the Ibero-Armorican region occur predominantly in the late Maaastrichtian (at least above the early Maastrichtian-late Maastrichtian boundary). The highest abundance is found noticeably found in the late Maastrichtian, with tracks occurring in the C29r magnetochron, within about the latest 300,000 years of the Cretaceous.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus