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Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

Bashir Z, Kondapalli VK, Adlakha N, Sharma A, Bhatnagar RK, Chandel G, Yazdani SS - Sci Rep (2013)

Bottom Line: Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan.Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase.These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

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Pictures of termites, pill-bugs and rice stem-borers collected from various ecological niches.
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f1: Pictures of termites, pill-bugs and rice stem-borers collected from various ecological niches.

Mentions: The guts of arthropods feeding on woody and agricultural biomass are an ideal place for symbiotic cellulolytic microbes to thrive. We selected two insects, termites and yellow stem borers, and a crustacean, pill-bugs, because of their ability to live in diverse niches. Termites were collected from the trunks and roots of dead trees; pill-bugs were collected from dampened soil containing decomposed leaf litters; and yellow stem borers living in rice stems were collected from an agricultural rice field (Figure 1). Arthropod families were identified by performing BLAST with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) genes from each organism and further confirmed by morphological characterisation. The nearest possible hits for termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem borers were Odontotermes hiananensis, Armadillidium sp. and Scirpophaga incertulas, respectively. The guts of these arthropods were dissected as described in the Methods section, and the microbes living in the guts were grown on agar plates containing CMC and trypan blue at various dilutions under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Unique isolated colonies showing clearance zones on a blue background were purified by re-streaking, and their cellulolytic capabilities were further confirmed by Congo red staining of agar plates18. Approximately 42 bacterial colonies were selected by the above screening method for phylogenetic analysis and enzymatic activity analysis. Among these, 26 bacteria were isolated by screening under aerobic conditions, and 16 were isolated under anaerobic conditions (Table 1).


Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

Bashir Z, Kondapalli VK, Adlakha N, Sharma A, Bhatnagar RK, Chandel G, Yazdani SS - Sci Rep (2013)

Pictures of termites, pill-bugs and rice stem-borers collected from various ecological niches.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3757366&req=5

f1: Pictures of termites, pill-bugs and rice stem-borers collected from various ecological niches.
Mentions: The guts of arthropods feeding on woody and agricultural biomass are an ideal place for symbiotic cellulolytic microbes to thrive. We selected two insects, termites and yellow stem borers, and a crustacean, pill-bugs, because of their ability to live in diverse niches. Termites were collected from the trunks and roots of dead trees; pill-bugs were collected from dampened soil containing decomposed leaf litters; and yellow stem borers living in rice stems were collected from an agricultural rice field (Figure 1). Arthropod families were identified by performing BLAST with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) genes from each organism and further confirmed by morphological characterisation. The nearest possible hits for termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem borers were Odontotermes hiananensis, Armadillidium sp. and Scirpophaga incertulas, respectively. The guts of these arthropods were dissected as described in the Methods section, and the microbes living in the guts were grown on agar plates containing CMC and trypan blue at various dilutions under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Unique isolated colonies showing clearance zones on a blue background were purified by re-streaking, and their cellulolytic capabilities were further confirmed by Congo red staining of agar plates18. Approximately 42 bacterial colonies were selected by the above screening method for phylogenetic analysis and enzymatic activity analysis. Among these, 26 bacteria were isolated by screening under aerobic conditions, and 16 were isolated under anaerobic conditions (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan.Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase.These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

Show MeSH