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Rationally designed porous polystyrene encapsulated zirconium phosphate nanocomposite for highly efficient fluoride uptake in waters.

Zhang Q, Du Q, Jiao T, Zhang Z, Wang S, Sun Q, Gao F - Sci Rep (2013)

Bottom Line: Moreover outstanding sorption properties were also detected by involving series of commercial adsorbents (AA/magnetite/GFH/manganese sands) as references.Additionally, the exhausted ZrP-MPN could be regenerated readily by alkaline solution.Thus, ZrP-MPN was a promising material for fluoride retention in waters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, PR China. zhangqr@ysu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
Fluoride pollution in waters has engulfed worldwide regions and an excess of fluoride intake always causes skeletal fluorosis. Herein, a novel hybrid nanomaterial ZrP-MPN was fabricated for fluoride retention by encapsulating nano-ZrP onto macroporous polystyrene materials modified with quaternary ammonium groups. The as-obtained materials exhibited favorable removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution in presence of common anions (SO4(2-)/NO3(-)/Cl(-)) at high contents. Moreover outstanding sorption properties were also detected by involving series of commercial adsorbents (AA/magnetite/GFH/manganese sands) as references. Such satisfactory performances might be ascribed to the structural design of nanocomposite. (1) the CH2N(+)(CH3)3Cl groups enhances sorption diffusion and preconcentration in sorbent phase theoretically based on Donnan membrane principle; (2) the embedded ZrP nanoparticles also devotes to the efficient adsorption capacities due to its size-dependent specific properties. Additionally, the exhausted ZrP-MPN could be regenerated readily by alkaline solution. Thus, ZrP-MPN was a promising material for fluoride retention in waters.

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The schematic structure of the hybrid nanomaterials ZrP-MPN.
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f1: The schematic structure of the hybrid nanomaterials ZrP-MPN.

Mentions: The simple schematic structure of the resulting sorbent ZrP-MPN was presented in Figure 1 and the hybrid nanomaterials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nitrogen sorption measurement for pore analysis. As depicted in Figure 2(a–c), the obtained nanocomposites were spherical beads, then the resulting adsorbent was subjected to cutting into half and the inner surface morphologies were described by SEM analysis. The morphological comparisons of the hybrid materials and its matrix indicated that ZrP particles were successful embedded into the inner surface of ZrP-MPN and blocked some cross-linked pores, the corresponding Zr element scanning by SEM-EDS (Figure 2f) further demonstrated the encapsulated ZrP distributed in a ring-like region. Besides, AFM analysis was also performed to obtain new insight toward the impregnated ZrP particles. As shown in Figure 2(d, e, d′ e′), the morphology of the inner surface within MPN exhibited outstanding height differences (vertical height > 1 µm), which indicated the broad macroporous structures, whereas for the hybrid nanomaterial ZrP-MPN, the uniform surface height variations (240–310 nm detected in Figure 2(d′ e′)) suggests the implantation of ZrP nanoparticles blocks some of nanopores. Furthermore, the ZrP amounts of ZrP-MPN (about 24.3% in mass) according to the contents variation before and after loading by ICP analysis also implied the success anchorage of ZrP particles. nitrogen sorption measurement (Table 1) for pore structure analysis further revealed similar appearances and the incorporation of ZrP particles resulted in a significant decrease in pore volume and average pore sizes, which might ascribe to the possible pore blocking during incorporation process. However, it is worth to note that a slightly increase in BET surface areas from 17.0 to 22.3 m2/g, possibly attributed to the formation of nanosized ZrP particles324142. Nanoscale materials usually present larger surface areas and abundant active sites, thus, as expected, the specific areas could offer preferential sorption towards fluoride retention. TEM images (Figure 2g) further proved that the encapsulated ZrP particles were monodispersed nanoparticles with size 20–30 nm. XRD spectrum (Figure 2i) of ZrP-MPN beads illustrated that the embedded ZrP particles were amorphous in nature, note that the mild synthesis conditions might more suitable for amorphous ZrP formation, and in fact, the amorphous ZrP might exhibit more favorable sorption performances than the crystal41. TGA curves (Figure S1) indicated the hybrid materials exhibit good thermal stability. It is worthy to note that the observed weight loss (16%) below 400°C mainly ascribed to the evaporation of the external water and further increasing the temperatures reduce significant weight loss for the decomposition of polymeric matrix within ZrP-MPN.


Rationally designed porous polystyrene encapsulated zirconium phosphate nanocomposite for highly efficient fluoride uptake in waters.

Zhang Q, Du Q, Jiao T, Zhang Z, Wang S, Sun Q, Gao F - Sci Rep (2013)

The schematic structure of the hybrid nanomaterials ZrP-MPN.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3757354&req=5

f1: The schematic structure of the hybrid nanomaterials ZrP-MPN.
Mentions: The simple schematic structure of the resulting sorbent ZrP-MPN was presented in Figure 1 and the hybrid nanomaterials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nitrogen sorption measurement for pore analysis. As depicted in Figure 2(a–c), the obtained nanocomposites were spherical beads, then the resulting adsorbent was subjected to cutting into half and the inner surface morphologies were described by SEM analysis. The morphological comparisons of the hybrid materials and its matrix indicated that ZrP particles were successful embedded into the inner surface of ZrP-MPN and blocked some cross-linked pores, the corresponding Zr element scanning by SEM-EDS (Figure 2f) further demonstrated the encapsulated ZrP distributed in a ring-like region. Besides, AFM analysis was also performed to obtain new insight toward the impregnated ZrP particles. As shown in Figure 2(d, e, d′ e′), the morphology of the inner surface within MPN exhibited outstanding height differences (vertical height > 1 µm), which indicated the broad macroporous structures, whereas for the hybrid nanomaterial ZrP-MPN, the uniform surface height variations (240–310 nm detected in Figure 2(d′ e′)) suggests the implantation of ZrP nanoparticles blocks some of nanopores. Furthermore, the ZrP amounts of ZrP-MPN (about 24.3% in mass) according to the contents variation before and after loading by ICP analysis also implied the success anchorage of ZrP particles. nitrogen sorption measurement (Table 1) for pore structure analysis further revealed similar appearances and the incorporation of ZrP particles resulted in a significant decrease in pore volume and average pore sizes, which might ascribe to the possible pore blocking during incorporation process. However, it is worth to note that a slightly increase in BET surface areas from 17.0 to 22.3 m2/g, possibly attributed to the formation of nanosized ZrP particles324142. Nanoscale materials usually present larger surface areas and abundant active sites, thus, as expected, the specific areas could offer preferential sorption towards fluoride retention. TEM images (Figure 2g) further proved that the encapsulated ZrP particles were monodispersed nanoparticles with size 20–30 nm. XRD spectrum (Figure 2i) of ZrP-MPN beads illustrated that the embedded ZrP particles were amorphous in nature, note that the mild synthesis conditions might more suitable for amorphous ZrP formation, and in fact, the amorphous ZrP might exhibit more favorable sorption performances than the crystal41. TGA curves (Figure S1) indicated the hybrid materials exhibit good thermal stability. It is worthy to note that the observed weight loss (16%) below 400°C mainly ascribed to the evaporation of the external water and further increasing the temperatures reduce significant weight loss for the decomposition of polymeric matrix within ZrP-MPN.

Bottom Line: Moreover outstanding sorption properties were also detected by involving series of commercial adsorbents (AA/magnetite/GFH/manganese sands) as references.Additionally, the exhausted ZrP-MPN could be regenerated readily by alkaline solution.Thus, ZrP-MPN was a promising material for fluoride retention in waters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, PR China. zhangqr@ysu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
Fluoride pollution in waters has engulfed worldwide regions and an excess of fluoride intake always causes skeletal fluorosis. Herein, a novel hybrid nanomaterial ZrP-MPN was fabricated for fluoride retention by encapsulating nano-ZrP onto macroporous polystyrene materials modified with quaternary ammonium groups. The as-obtained materials exhibited favorable removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution in presence of common anions (SO4(2-)/NO3(-)/Cl(-)) at high contents. Moreover outstanding sorption properties were also detected by involving series of commercial adsorbents (AA/magnetite/GFH/manganese sands) as references. Such satisfactory performances might be ascribed to the structural design of nanocomposite. (1) the CH2N(+)(CH3)3Cl groups enhances sorption diffusion and preconcentration in sorbent phase theoretically based on Donnan membrane principle; (2) the embedded ZrP nanoparticles also devotes to the efficient adsorption capacities due to its size-dependent specific properties. Additionally, the exhausted ZrP-MPN could be regenerated readily by alkaline solution. Thus, ZrP-MPN was a promising material for fluoride retention in waters.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus