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Associative account of self-cognition: extended forward model and multi-layer structure.

Sugiura M - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices.Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error.In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan ; International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan.

ABSTRACT
The neural correlates of "self" identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body-ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices. The social self, representing the self as a collection of context-dependent social-values, is supported by the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. Despite differences in the underlying cognitive processes and neural substrates, all three categories of self are likely to share the computational characteristics of the forward model, which is underpinned by internal schema or learned associations between one's behavioral output and the consequential input. Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error. In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neural correlates of the social-value of self. Relevant cortical areas are schematically illustrated on the medial surface of the right hemisphere. vMPFC: ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex, ACC: anterior cingulate cortex, mOFC: medial orbitofrontal cortex, and PCC: posterior cingulate cortex (A). An example of neuroimaging data: activation during self-trait judgment about the personality trait adjective [(B); (Kelley et al., 2002)].
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Figure 3: Neural correlates of the social-value of self. Relevant cortical areas are schematically illustrated on the medial surface of the right hemisphere. vMPFC: ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex, ACC: anterior cingulate cortex, mOFC: medial orbitofrontal cortex, and PCC: posterior cingulate cortex (A). An example of neuroimaging data: activation during self-trait judgment about the personality trait adjective [(B); (Kelley et al., 2002)].

Mentions: Indeed, the cortical regions implicated in self-value have, at least in part, a different distribution than do those implicated in the interpersonal self. Specifically, tasks that are assumed to manipulate the social-value of self typically activate the ventral part of the MPFC (vMPFC) and the posterior part of the cingulate cortex (PCC) or its adjacent medial parietal cortex (i.e., the precuneus) (Figure 3A). Activation of these regions has been reported during self-trait judgment, specifically when contrasted with trait-valence judgment (Craik et al., 1999; Schmitz et al., 2004) or other trait judgments (Figure 3B) (Craik et al., 1999; Kelley et al., 2002; Heatherton et al., 2006; D’Argembeau et al., 2007). Similarly, activation in these regions has been identified when contrasting self-descriptive and non-descriptive trait adjectives (Kircher et al., 2002; Macrae et al., 2004) and when the trait adjective is correlated with self-descriptiveness (Moran et al., 2006). Moreover, the perception of the evaluation of self by others activates these regions (Izuma et al., 2008), particularly in subjects whose self-evaluation is vulnerable to evaluation by others (Somerville et al., 2010). Interestingly, the perception of the evaluation of self by familiar others activates the dMPFC (Korn et al., 2012), which is thought to be the neural correlate of the interpersonal self, rather than vMPFC. This may be explained by the fact that this experimental manipulation affects mental representations of the self in relation to specific others rather than those related to the value of the self, illustrating the conceptual difference between the interpersonal self and the social-value of the self.


Associative account of self-cognition: extended forward model and multi-layer structure.

Sugiura M - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Neural correlates of the social-value of self. Relevant cortical areas are schematically illustrated on the medial surface of the right hemisphere. vMPFC: ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex, ACC: anterior cingulate cortex, mOFC: medial orbitofrontal cortex, and PCC: posterior cingulate cortex (A). An example of neuroimaging data: activation during self-trait judgment about the personality trait adjective [(B); (Kelley et al., 2002)].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3757323&req=5

Figure 3: Neural correlates of the social-value of self. Relevant cortical areas are schematically illustrated on the medial surface of the right hemisphere. vMPFC: ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex, ACC: anterior cingulate cortex, mOFC: medial orbitofrontal cortex, and PCC: posterior cingulate cortex (A). An example of neuroimaging data: activation during self-trait judgment about the personality trait adjective [(B); (Kelley et al., 2002)].
Mentions: Indeed, the cortical regions implicated in self-value have, at least in part, a different distribution than do those implicated in the interpersonal self. Specifically, tasks that are assumed to manipulate the social-value of self typically activate the ventral part of the MPFC (vMPFC) and the posterior part of the cingulate cortex (PCC) or its adjacent medial parietal cortex (i.e., the precuneus) (Figure 3A). Activation of these regions has been reported during self-trait judgment, specifically when contrasted with trait-valence judgment (Craik et al., 1999; Schmitz et al., 2004) or other trait judgments (Figure 3B) (Craik et al., 1999; Kelley et al., 2002; Heatherton et al., 2006; D’Argembeau et al., 2007). Similarly, activation in these regions has been identified when contrasting self-descriptive and non-descriptive trait adjectives (Kircher et al., 2002; Macrae et al., 2004) and when the trait adjective is correlated with self-descriptiveness (Moran et al., 2006). Moreover, the perception of the evaluation of self by others activates these regions (Izuma et al., 2008), particularly in subjects whose self-evaluation is vulnerable to evaluation by others (Somerville et al., 2010). Interestingly, the perception of the evaluation of self by familiar others activates the dMPFC (Korn et al., 2012), which is thought to be the neural correlate of the interpersonal self, rather than vMPFC. This may be explained by the fact that this experimental manipulation affects mental representations of the self in relation to specific others rather than those related to the value of the self, illustrating the conceptual difference between the interpersonal self and the social-value of the self.

Bottom Line: The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices.Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error.In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan ; International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan.

ABSTRACT
The neural correlates of "self" identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body-ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices. The social self, representing the self as a collection of context-dependent social-values, is supported by the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. Despite differences in the underlying cognitive processes and neural substrates, all three categories of self are likely to share the computational characteristics of the forward model, which is underpinned by internal schema or learned associations between one's behavioral output and the consequential input. Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error. In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus