Limits...
Associative account of self-cognition: extended forward model and multi-layer structure.

Sugiura M - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices.Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error.In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan ; International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan.

ABSTRACT
The neural correlates of "self" identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body-ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices. The social self, representing the self as a collection of context-dependent social-values, is supported by the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. Despite differences in the underlying cognitive processes and neural substrates, all three categories of self are likely to share the computational characteristics of the forward model, which is underpinned by internal schema or learned associations between one's behavioral output and the consequential input. Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error. In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neural correlates of the physical self. Sensory and motor association cortices are schematically illustrated on the lateral (top left panel) and medial (middle left panel) surface of the right hemisphere: visual association cortex [ventral (A) and dorsal (B) pathways]; auditory association cortex (C); somatosensory association cortex (D); motor association cortices {dorsal (E) and ventral (F) parts of premotor cortex and medial regions including the supplementary motor area [SMA, (G)] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC, (H)]}; and intraparietal sulcus (I). The bottom left panel shows the schema within the opened Sylvian fissure in the right hemisphere to expose the insular cortex (J). Examples of neuroimaging data: activation specifically observed during self-face recognition in picture [(K) (Sugiura et al., 2012)]; activation during speech with manipulated auditory feedback of own voice [(L) (Hashimoto and Sakai, 2003)]; activation during violated self-agency of control of avatar in computer game [(M) (Yomogida et al., 2010)]; and awareness of self-agency of control of cursor in computer game [(N) (Farrer and Frith, 2002)].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3757323&req=5

Figure 1: Neural correlates of the physical self. Sensory and motor association cortices are schematically illustrated on the lateral (top left panel) and medial (middle left panel) surface of the right hemisphere: visual association cortex [ventral (A) and dorsal (B) pathways]; auditory association cortex (C); somatosensory association cortex (D); motor association cortices {dorsal (E) and ventral (F) parts of premotor cortex and medial regions including the supplementary motor area [SMA, (G)] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC, (H)]}; and intraparietal sulcus (I). The bottom left panel shows the schema within the opened Sylvian fissure in the right hemisphere to expose the insular cortex (J). Examples of neuroimaging data: activation specifically observed during self-face recognition in picture [(K) (Sugiura et al., 2012)]; activation during speech with manipulated auditory feedback of own voice [(L) (Hashimoto and Sakai, 2003)]; activation during violated self-agency of control of avatar in computer game [(M) (Yomogida et al., 2010)]; and awareness of self-agency of control of cursor in computer game [(N) (Farrer and Frith, 2002)].

Mentions: Although the regions reportedly involved in this activation vary across studies and approaches, they include primarily the sensory and/or motor association cortices (Figure 1) and depend on the sensory modality of the stimulus used. Activation of the visual association cortices, including the ventral and dorsal pathways (Figures 1A,B, respectively), has been reported in studies using visual stimuli to address visual self-face or self-body recognition (Kircher et al., 2000; Sugiura et al., 2005a, 2006, 2008, 2012; Uddin et al., 2005; Platek et al., 2006; Kaplan et al., 2008; Ferri et al., 2012; Oikawa et al., 2012), the illusory sense of body-ownership or location (Ehrsson et al., 2004; Tsakiris et al., 2007; Ionta et al., 2011), and the violation or awareness of action-agency (Fink et al., 1999; David et al., 2007; Corradi-Dell’Acqua et al., 2008; Farrer et al., 2008; Spengler et al., 2009; Yomogida et al., 2010). Auditory association cortices (Figure 1C) are activated during the perception of manipulated feedback of self-voice during speaking aloud (McGuire et al., 1996a; Hashimoto and Sakai, 2003; Fu et al., 2006). Activation of somatosensory association cortices (Figure 1D) has been reported in studies using tactile input to manipulate the agency of self-tickling actions (Blakemore et al., 1998) or to induce an illusory sense of body-ownership or location (Ehrsson et al., 2004; Tsakiris et al., 2007; Ionta et al., 2011).


Associative account of self-cognition: extended forward model and multi-layer structure.

Sugiura M - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Neural correlates of the physical self. Sensory and motor association cortices are schematically illustrated on the lateral (top left panel) and medial (middle left panel) surface of the right hemisphere: visual association cortex [ventral (A) and dorsal (B) pathways]; auditory association cortex (C); somatosensory association cortex (D); motor association cortices {dorsal (E) and ventral (F) parts of premotor cortex and medial regions including the supplementary motor area [SMA, (G)] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC, (H)]}; and intraparietal sulcus (I). The bottom left panel shows the schema within the opened Sylvian fissure in the right hemisphere to expose the insular cortex (J). Examples of neuroimaging data: activation specifically observed during self-face recognition in picture [(K) (Sugiura et al., 2012)]; activation during speech with manipulated auditory feedback of own voice [(L) (Hashimoto and Sakai, 2003)]; activation during violated self-agency of control of avatar in computer game [(M) (Yomogida et al., 2010)]; and awareness of self-agency of control of cursor in computer game [(N) (Farrer and Frith, 2002)].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3757323&req=5

Figure 1: Neural correlates of the physical self. Sensory and motor association cortices are schematically illustrated on the lateral (top left panel) and medial (middle left panel) surface of the right hemisphere: visual association cortex [ventral (A) and dorsal (B) pathways]; auditory association cortex (C); somatosensory association cortex (D); motor association cortices {dorsal (E) and ventral (F) parts of premotor cortex and medial regions including the supplementary motor area [SMA, (G)] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC, (H)]}; and intraparietal sulcus (I). The bottom left panel shows the schema within the opened Sylvian fissure in the right hemisphere to expose the insular cortex (J). Examples of neuroimaging data: activation specifically observed during self-face recognition in picture [(K) (Sugiura et al., 2012)]; activation during speech with manipulated auditory feedback of own voice [(L) (Hashimoto and Sakai, 2003)]; activation during violated self-agency of control of avatar in computer game [(M) (Yomogida et al., 2010)]; and awareness of self-agency of control of cursor in computer game [(N) (Farrer and Frith, 2002)].
Mentions: Although the regions reportedly involved in this activation vary across studies and approaches, they include primarily the sensory and/or motor association cortices (Figure 1) and depend on the sensory modality of the stimulus used. Activation of the visual association cortices, including the ventral and dorsal pathways (Figures 1A,B, respectively), has been reported in studies using visual stimuli to address visual self-face or self-body recognition (Kircher et al., 2000; Sugiura et al., 2005a, 2006, 2008, 2012; Uddin et al., 2005; Platek et al., 2006; Kaplan et al., 2008; Ferri et al., 2012; Oikawa et al., 2012), the illusory sense of body-ownership or location (Ehrsson et al., 2004; Tsakiris et al., 2007; Ionta et al., 2011), and the violation or awareness of action-agency (Fink et al., 1999; David et al., 2007; Corradi-Dell’Acqua et al., 2008; Farrer et al., 2008; Spengler et al., 2009; Yomogida et al., 2010). Auditory association cortices (Figure 1C) are activated during the perception of manipulated feedback of self-voice during speaking aloud (McGuire et al., 1996a; Hashimoto and Sakai, 2003; Fu et al., 2006). Activation of somatosensory association cortices (Figure 1D) has been reported in studies using tactile input to manipulate the agency of self-tickling actions (Blakemore et al., 1998) or to induce an illusory sense of body-ownership or location (Ehrsson et al., 2004; Tsakiris et al., 2007; Ionta et al., 2011).

Bottom Line: The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices.Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error.In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan ; International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan.

ABSTRACT
The neural correlates of "self" identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body-ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices. The social self, representing the self as a collection of context-dependent social-values, is supported by the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. Despite differences in the underlying cognitive processes and neural substrates, all three categories of self are likely to share the computational characteristics of the forward model, which is underpinned by internal schema or learned associations between one's behavioral output and the consequential input. Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error. In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus