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Genetic diversity in endangered Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi): contrasting results from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA data.

Kolleck J, Yang M, Zinner D, Roos C - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: A Bayesian Skyline Plot based on mitochondrial DNA sequences shows a strong decrease of the female effective population size (Nef) starting about 3,500 to 4,000 years ago, which concurs with the increasing human population in the area and respective expansion of agriculture.Given that we found no indication for a loss of nuclear DNA diversity in R. brelichi it seems that this factor does not represent the most prominent conservation threat for the long-term survival of the species.Conservation efforts should therefore focus more on immediate threats such as development of tourism and habitat destruction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Primate Genetics Laboratory, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate the conservation status of a species or population it is necessary to gain insight into its ecological requirements, reproduction, genetic population structure, and overall genetic diversity. In our study we examined the genetic diversity of Rhinopithecus brelichi by analyzing microsatellite data and compared them with already existing data derived from mitochondrial DNA, which revealed that R. brelichi exhibits the lowest mitochondrial diversity of all so far studied Rhinopithecus species. In contrast, the genetic diversity of nuclear DNA is high and comparable to other Rhinopithecus species, i.e. the examined microsatellite loci are similarly highly polymorphic as in other species of the genus. An explanation for these differences in mitochondrial and nuclear genetic diversity could be a male biased dispersal. Females most likely stay within their natal band and males migrate between bands, thus mitochondrial DNA will not be exchanged between bands but nuclear DNA via males. A Bayesian Skyline Plot based on mitochondrial DNA sequences shows a strong decrease of the female effective population size (Nef) starting about 3,500 to 4,000 years ago, which concurs with the increasing human population in the area and respective expansion of agriculture. Given that we found no indication for a loss of nuclear DNA diversity in R. brelichi it seems that this factor does not represent the most prominent conservation threat for the long-term survival of the species. Conservation efforts should therefore focus more on immediate threats such as development of tourism and habitat destruction.

Show MeSH
Allele frequency distribution for eight microsatellite loci in Rhinopithecus brelichi (n = 141 individuals).Bars represent the proportion of alleles found in each allele frequency class. The distribution is L-shaped, as expected for a stable population under mutation-drift equilibrium, thus not indicating a recent bottleneck.
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pone-0073647-g002: Allele frequency distribution for eight microsatellite loci in Rhinopithecus brelichi (n = 141 individuals).Bars represent the proportion of alleles found in each allele frequency class. The distribution is L-shaped, as expected for a stable population under mutation-drift equilibrium, thus not indicating a recent bottleneck.

Mentions: The TPM implemented in the Bottleneck program does not support a recent bottleneck in the R. brelichi population (p = 0.098). Additionally the allele frequency distribution does not indicate any distortion form a normal L-shape distribution (Figure 2), hence also this graphic test does not support any recent bottleneck of the R. brelichi population.


Genetic diversity in endangered Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi): contrasting results from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA data.

Kolleck J, Yang M, Zinner D, Roos C - PLoS ONE (2013)

Allele frequency distribution for eight microsatellite loci in Rhinopithecus brelichi (n = 141 individuals).Bars represent the proportion of alleles found in each allele frequency class. The distribution is L-shaped, as expected for a stable population under mutation-drift equilibrium, thus not indicating a recent bottleneck.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756984&req=5

pone-0073647-g002: Allele frequency distribution for eight microsatellite loci in Rhinopithecus brelichi (n = 141 individuals).Bars represent the proportion of alleles found in each allele frequency class. The distribution is L-shaped, as expected for a stable population under mutation-drift equilibrium, thus not indicating a recent bottleneck.
Mentions: The TPM implemented in the Bottleneck program does not support a recent bottleneck in the R. brelichi population (p = 0.098). Additionally the allele frequency distribution does not indicate any distortion form a normal L-shape distribution (Figure 2), hence also this graphic test does not support any recent bottleneck of the R. brelichi population.

Bottom Line: A Bayesian Skyline Plot based on mitochondrial DNA sequences shows a strong decrease of the female effective population size (Nef) starting about 3,500 to 4,000 years ago, which concurs with the increasing human population in the area and respective expansion of agriculture.Given that we found no indication for a loss of nuclear DNA diversity in R. brelichi it seems that this factor does not represent the most prominent conservation threat for the long-term survival of the species.Conservation efforts should therefore focus more on immediate threats such as development of tourism and habitat destruction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Primate Genetics Laboratory, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate the conservation status of a species or population it is necessary to gain insight into its ecological requirements, reproduction, genetic population structure, and overall genetic diversity. In our study we examined the genetic diversity of Rhinopithecus brelichi by analyzing microsatellite data and compared them with already existing data derived from mitochondrial DNA, which revealed that R. brelichi exhibits the lowest mitochondrial diversity of all so far studied Rhinopithecus species. In contrast, the genetic diversity of nuclear DNA is high and comparable to other Rhinopithecus species, i.e. the examined microsatellite loci are similarly highly polymorphic as in other species of the genus. An explanation for these differences in mitochondrial and nuclear genetic diversity could be a male biased dispersal. Females most likely stay within their natal band and males migrate between bands, thus mitochondrial DNA will not be exchanged between bands but nuclear DNA via males. A Bayesian Skyline Plot based on mitochondrial DNA sequences shows a strong decrease of the female effective population size (Nef) starting about 3,500 to 4,000 years ago, which concurs with the increasing human population in the area and respective expansion of agriculture. Given that we found no indication for a loss of nuclear DNA diversity in R. brelichi it seems that this factor does not represent the most prominent conservation threat for the long-term survival of the species. Conservation efforts should therefore focus more on immediate threats such as development of tourism and habitat destruction.

Show MeSH