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Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster.

Seyama Y, Uchijima Y - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Bottom Line: The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC.The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visiting Professor, National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan .

ABSTRACT
Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Catabolic pathway of the branched chain amino acids; valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
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f7-83_077: Catabolic pathway of the branched chain amino acids; valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

Mentions: In the catabolism of these amino acids, isobutyryl-CoA from valine and 2-methylbutyryl-CoA from isoleucine are catabolized further by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and isovaleryl-CoA from leucine is catabolized by isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase43) (Fig. 7).26) When these enzymes are inactive, the accumulated short chain acyl CoA serves as a primer for the production of even-numbered iso-acids from isobutyryl-CoA, odd-numbered iso-acids from isovaleryl-CoA, and odd-numbered anteiso-acids from 2-methylbutyryl-CoA.44) The fatty acid composition of the ADG from females suggested such a situation. When these enzymes are active, valine is degraded to succinyl-CoA, leucine to acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA, and isoleucine to acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA are primers of even- and odd-carbon number normal acids in fatty acid synthesis. This was the situation observed in the Harderian gland of male golden hamsters. The amount of iso- and anteiso-branched chain fatty acids in a male gland was minute, as shown in Fig. 4,26) but was detectable, as the peak on the gas chromatogram and the total amount reached about 2%. The same was held for the alkyl composition of male ADG. These findings suggested that a small part of isobutyryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isovaleryl-CoA was also used as a primer for fatty acid synthesis in the male gland. These observations led to the idea that a sex hormone, like testosterone, affects the metabolism of BCAA at the step of 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and brings about dramatic sexual diversity in the lipid composition in the glands of male and female golden hamsters.


Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster.

Seyama Y, Uchijima Y - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Catabolic pathway of the branched chain amino acids; valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756879&req=5

f7-83_077: Catabolic pathway of the branched chain amino acids; valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
Mentions: In the catabolism of these amino acids, isobutyryl-CoA from valine and 2-methylbutyryl-CoA from isoleucine are catabolized further by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and isovaleryl-CoA from leucine is catabolized by isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase43) (Fig. 7).26) When these enzymes are inactive, the accumulated short chain acyl CoA serves as a primer for the production of even-numbered iso-acids from isobutyryl-CoA, odd-numbered iso-acids from isovaleryl-CoA, and odd-numbered anteiso-acids from 2-methylbutyryl-CoA.44) The fatty acid composition of the ADG from females suggested such a situation. When these enzymes are active, valine is degraded to succinyl-CoA, leucine to acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA, and isoleucine to acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA are primers of even- and odd-carbon number normal acids in fatty acid synthesis. This was the situation observed in the Harderian gland of male golden hamsters. The amount of iso- and anteiso-branched chain fatty acids in a male gland was minute, as shown in Fig. 4,26) but was detectable, as the peak on the gas chromatogram and the total amount reached about 2%. The same was held for the alkyl composition of male ADG. These findings suggested that a small part of isobutyryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isovaleryl-CoA was also used as a primer for fatty acid synthesis in the male gland. These observations led to the idea that a sex hormone, like testosterone, affects the metabolism of BCAA at the step of 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and brings about dramatic sexual diversity in the lipid composition in the glands of male and female golden hamsters.

Bottom Line: The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC.The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visiting Professor, National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan .

ABSTRACT
Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus