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Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster.

Seyama Y, Uchijima Y - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Bottom Line: The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC.The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visiting Professor, National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan .

ABSTRACT
Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

1H NMR spectra of the methyl signal regions of intact ADG subfraction (F-2 in Fig. 3).The 1H NMR spectrum was measured in a CDCl3 solution, with tetramethylsilane as an internal standard, with a GX-400 spectrometer (JEOL, Tokyo) at 400 MHz.
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f6-83_077: 1H NMR spectra of the methyl signal regions of intact ADG subfraction (F-2 in Fig. 3).The 1H NMR spectrum was measured in a CDCl3 solution, with tetramethylsilane as an internal standard, with a GX-400 spectrometer (JEOL, Tokyo) at 400 MHz.

Mentions: Although GLC of fatty acids is an established sensitive and reliable method, it is not suitable to detect short chain fatty acids. When a sample contains short chain fatty acids as in the present case (less than 8 carbon numbers), the fatty acid methyl esters will be lost during sample processing, such as during extraction and evaporation, or overlooked on gas chromatography. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analysis of ADG provided an explanation as to the different behaviors of these five fractions on TLC (Fig. 3, lane 2, 3, 5, 6, 7). Propionic, hexanoic, and octanoic acids were esterified at the 3-position of M-3 (Fig. 3, lane 7). Such short chain fatty acids explain the different behavior on TLC of M-3, which was distinguishable from M-1 and M-2. The NMR spectra of intact ADG, F-2 in Fig. 6,26) for example, revealed the presence of isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids at the 3-position of the glycerol moiety. The large doublet signal (a) (δH 0.98, J = 7 Hz) in the 1H NMR spectrum was assigned to the methyl group of isovaleric acid. The small doublet (b) (δH 1.14, J = 7 Hz) and triplet (c) (δH 0.90, J = 7 Hz) were expected to be those of 2-methylbutyric acid.35) The proton signals in Fig. 626) suggested that the 3-position of F-2 was mainly substituted by isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids, both putative precursors in the biosynthesis of iso- and anteiso-type fatty acids.


Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster.

Seyama Y, Uchijima Y - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

1H NMR spectra of the methyl signal regions of intact ADG subfraction (F-2 in Fig. 3).The 1H NMR spectrum was measured in a CDCl3 solution, with tetramethylsilane as an internal standard, with a GX-400 spectrometer (JEOL, Tokyo) at 400 MHz.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756879&req=5

f6-83_077: 1H NMR spectra of the methyl signal regions of intact ADG subfraction (F-2 in Fig. 3).The 1H NMR spectrum was measured in a CDCl3 solution, with tetramethylsilane as an internal standard, with a GX-400 spectrometer (JEOL, Tokyo) at 400 MHz.
Mentions: Although GLC of fatty acids is an established sensitive and reliable method, it is not suitable to detect short chain fatty acids. When a sample contains short chain fatty acids as in the present case (less than 8 carbon numbers), the fatty acid methyl esters will be lost during sample processing, such as during extraction and evaporation, or overlooked on gas chromatography. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analysis of ADG provided an explanation as to the different behaviors of these five fractions on TLC (Fig. 3, lane 2, 3, 5, 6, 7). Propionic, hexanoic, and octanoic acids were esterified at the 3-position of M-3 (Fig. 3, lane 7). Such short chain fatty acids explain the different behavior on TLC of M-3, which was distinguishable from M-1 and M-2. The NMR spectra of intact ADG, F-2 in Fig. 6,26) for example, revealed the presence of isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids at the 3-position of the glycerol moiety. The large doublet signal (a) (δH 0.98, J = 7 Hz) in the 1H NMR spectrum was assigned to the methyl group of isovaleric acid. The small doublet (b) (δH 1.14, J = 7 Hz) and triplet (c) (δH 0.90, J = 7 Hz) were expected to be those of 2-methylbutyric acid.35) The proton signals in Fig. 626) suggested that the 3-position of F-2 was mainly substituted by isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids, both putative precursors in the biosynthesis of iso- and anteiso-type fatty acids.

Bottom Line: The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC.The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visiting Professor, National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan .

ABSTRACT
Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus