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Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster.

Seyama Y, Uchijima Y - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Bottom Line: The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC.The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visiting Professor, National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan .

ABSTRACT
Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Putative functions of golden hamster Harderian glands.
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f1-83_077: Putative functions of golden hamster Harderian glands.

Mentions: Harderian gland contains about 20% lipid by weight, and the main secretory product is lipids.7) As illustrated in Fig. 1,9) the excreted lipids from Harderian gland act as lubricants10), 11) and probably as the solvent for pheromones or other biologically active substances2), 12), 13). Yokoyama et al. purified a novel growth factor, which was also dissolved in the excretory lipids.6) Secretory lipids also serve a thermoregulation function in gerbils.14), 15) The lipids spread on the pelage act to insulate the animal against cold and wetness, and the lipids and pigments (porphyrins) darken the pelage and increase radiation absorption. Sandbathing removes excessive amount of pelage lipids, and lowers the body temperature.16) Also, removal of Harderian gland or fur lipids can result in an increased heat loss as well as water flux to and from the skin.17) Removal of Harderian materials from the pelage by sandbathing aids osmoregulation through lowering the rate of insensible perspiration. 18) Water and fat contents of Harderian gland were determined in the exophthalmic animals.19) An increase in water content was observed but no change occurred in the lipid content. In a transient exophthalmos induced by exposure to high-intensity illumination, the lipid content in the Harderian gland decreased significantly while the water content increased in accordance with the weight increase of this gland.20) In toads, Harderian gland of only females contained numerous lipid droplets.21) This finding suggested a pheromonal function, which might influence the sexual behavior of the male. A bactericidal effect has been attributed to unsaturated glycerin ethers in the rabbit Harderian gland.22)


Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster.

Seyama Y, Uchijima Y - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Putative functions of golden hamster Harderian glands.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756879&req=5

f1-83_077: Putative functions of golden hamster Harderian glands.
Mentions: Harderian gland contains about 20% lipid by weight, and the main secretory product is lipids.7) As illustrated in Fig. 1,9) the excreted lipids from Harderian gland act as lubricants10), 11) and probably as the solvent for pheromones or other biologically active substances2), 12), 13). Yokoyama et al. purified a novel growth factor, which was also dissolved in the excretory lipids.6) Secretory lipids also serve a thermoregulation function in gerbils.14), 15) The lipids spread on the pelage act to insulate the animal against cold and wetness, and the lipids and pigments (porphyrins) darken the pelage and increase radiation absorption. Sandbathing removes excessive amount of pelage lipids, and lowers the body temperature.16) Also, removal of Harderian gland or fur lipids can result in an increased heat loss as well as water flux to and from the skin.17) Removal of Harderian materials from the pelage by sandbathing aids osmoregulation through lowering the rate of insensible perspiration. 18) Water and fat contents of Harderian gland were determined in the exophthalmic animals.19) An increase in water content was observed but no change occurred in the lipid content. In a transient exophthalmos induced by exposure to high-intensity illumination, the lipid content in the Harderian gland decreased significantly while the water content increased in accordance with the weight increase of this gland.20) In toads, Harderian gland of only females contained numerous lipid droplets.21) This finding suggested a pheromonal function, which might influence the sexual behavior of the male. A bactericidal effect has been attributed to unsaturated glycerin ethers in the rabbit Harderian gland.22)

Bottom Line: The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC.The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visiting Professor, National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan .

ABSTRACT
Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-(14)C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus