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Our blood your money.

Hedley-Whyte J, Milamed DR - Ulster Med J (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: David S. Sheridan Professorship in Anaesthesia and Respiratory Therapy Harvard University, 1400 VFW Parkway, Boston, MA 02132-4927 USA.

ABSTRACT

On June 3, 1939, Donegal-born James C. Magee was appointed U.S. Army Surgeon General by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. On May 31, 1940, Magee appointed Professor Walter B. Cannon of Harvard University as Chairman of the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Shock and Transfusion. In 1938 Brigadier Lionel Whitby was appointed Director of an autonomous U.K. Army Blood Transfusion Service (ABTS). Whitby thereupon appointed Professor John Henry Biggart, Professor of Pathology, Queen’s University, his Northern Ireland Head of Blood Transfusion and Blood Banking. Winston S. Churchill was aware that Biggart’s service would be responsible for the needs of the Allied Forces and later for the United States Forces in Northern Ireland. Professor J.H. Biggart was known to Churchill from their 1926 post-prandial encounter in Belfast. The United States in 1941 determined that they were not able or prepared to fly U.S.-donated blood to Europe or Africa. The shortage of whole blood for United States forces required Whitby’s ABTS to supply all the blood for the Mediterranean Theatre and in Europe from the St. Lô breakout from Normandy until after the capture of Brussels on September 3, 1944 and then again in December 1944 for the Battle of the Bulge. Winston S. Churchill took Whitby to Quebec in September 1944 to meet with President Roosevelt and the combined U.S. Chiefs of Staff. Churchill used the supply of British blood to meet the needs of American Forces to prevent the U.S. threats to bankrupt the British Empire. President Roosevelt, already involved in his fourth campaign for the U.S. Presidency, accepted most of the British proposals for further credits. By Okinawa in the spring of 1945, under ABTS tutelage, all the Allies were adept in long-range transport and storage of large, 100,000 pint quantities of whole blood. Subsequently, Whitby and John Henry Biggart were knighted; U.S. Army Surgeon General Magee was sacked.

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This photograph was taken on the boardwalk of the Citadel near the Château Frontenac, Quebec City, when the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff met with the British Chiefs of Staff as the Allies’ Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee at the Octagon Conference in September 1944. Seated (left to right) are General George C. Marshall, Admiral William D. Leahy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, and Field Marshal Sir John Dill; standing (left to right) are Brigadier Leslie C. Hollis, Lieutenant General Sir Hastings Ismay, Admiral Ernest J. King, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, General Henry H. Arnold Chief of the U.S. Army Air Corps, and Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham.Leahy was instructed by U.S. Commander in Chief Franklin D. Roosevelt to tell Brigadier Lionel E. Whitby, also present at the Château, that it was F.D.R.’s wish that henceforth the advice of the Whitbys be followed in all Allied areas of combat. Leahy was Chair of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, F.D.R.Both Alan Brooke and Bill Leahy suffered grievously in World War II. Twelve of twenty-seven “Fighting Brookes of Colebrooke”, County Fermanagh, were killed40. Louise Leahy died postoperatively in Vichy, France, on April 21, 1942, after F.D.R. had urgently recalled her husband of thirty-eight years from his ambassadorship to Pétain, following Laval’s assumption of power. The Leahys had planned to return to Washington, D.C. as soon as Mrs. Leahy had sufficiently recovered, but Admiral Leahy embarked for New York on May 22, 1942 with his wife’s remains41.U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph 194469 2. Courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, Virginia, USA.
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fig04: This photograph was taken on the boardwalk of the Citadel near the Château Frontenac, Quebec City, when the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff met with the British Chiefs of Staff as the Allies’ Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee at the Octagon Conference in September 1944. Seated (left to right) are General George C. Marshall, Admiral William D. Leahy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, and Field Marshal Sir John Dill; standing (left to right) are Brigadier Leslie C. Hollis, Lieutenant General Sir Hastings Ismay, Admiral Ernest J. King, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, General Henry H. Arnold Chief of the U.S. Army Air Corps, and Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham.Leahy was instructed by U.S. Commander in Chief Franklin D. Roosevelt to tell Brigadier Lionel E. Whitby, also present at the Château, that it was F.D.R.’s wish that henceforth the advice of the Whitbys be followed in all Allied areas of combat. Leahy was Chair of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, F.D.R.Both Alan Brooke and Bill Leahy suffered grievously in World War II. Twelve of twenty-seven “Fighting Brookes of Colebrooke”, County Fermanagh, were killed40. Louise Leahy died postoperatively in Vichy, France, on April 21, 1942, after F.D.R. had urgently recalled her husband of thirty-eight years from his ambassadorship to Pétain, following Laval’s assumption of power. The Leahys had planned to return to Washington, D.C. as soon as Mrs. Leahy had sufficiently recovered, but Admiral Leahy embarked for New York on May 22, 1942 with his wife’s remains41.U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph 194469 2. Courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, Virginia, USA.

Mentions: The Queen Mary docked in Halifax on Sunday, September 10, 1944 and the Octagon conference started in Quebec City on Tuesday, September 12 (Fig. 4). After Whitby’s presentations, President Roosevelt told Admiral Leahy to tell Brigadier Whitby he should hereafter “request and require on behalf of the Commander-in-Chief” (as Ismay told JHW). Thus, on Thursday, September 14, Admiral Leahy came as the sole American, to Churchill’s “vast household dinner” 42*. Later that evening, Churchill told his secretary Colville that their gambit “our blood for your money” had, as Colville put it, succeeded “beyond the dreams of avarice”. Winston Churchill replied, “Beyond the dreams of justice”42.


Our blood your money.

Hedley-Whyte J, Milamed DR - Ulster Med J (2013)

This photograph was taken on the boardwalk of the Citadel near the Château Frontenac, Quebec City, when the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff met with the British Chiefs of Staff as the Allies’ Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee at the Octagon Conference in September 1944. Seated (left to right) are General George C. Marshall, Admiral William D. Leahy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, and Field Marshal Sir John Dill; standing (left to right) are Brigadier Leslie C. Hollis, Lieutenant General Sir Hastings Ismay, Admiral Ernest J. King, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, General Henry H. Arnold Chief of the U.S. Army Air Corps, and Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham.Leahy was instructed by U.S. Commander in Chief Franklin D. Roosevelt to tell Brigadier Lionel E. Whitby, also present at the Château, that it was F.D.R.’s wish that henceforth the advice of the Whitbys be followed in all Allied areas of combat. Leahy was Chair of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, F.D.R.Both Alan Brooke and Bill Leahy suffered grievously in World War II. Twelve of twenty-seven “Fighting Brookes of Colebrooke”, County Fermanagh, were killed40. Louise Leahy died postoperatively in Vichy, France, on April 21, 1942, after F.D.R. had urgently recalled her husband of thirty-eight years from his ambassadorship to Pétain, following Laval’s assumption of power. The Leahys had planned to return to Washington, D.C. as soon as Mrs. Leahy had sufficiently recovered, but Admiral Leahy embarked for New York on May 22, 1942 with his wife’s remains41.U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph 194469 2. Courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, Virginia, USA.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756870&req=5

fig04: This photograph was taken on the boardwalk of the Citadel near the Château Frontenac, Quebec City, when the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff met with the British Chiefs of Staff as the Allies’ Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee at the Octagon Conference in September 1944. Seated (left to right) are General George C. Marshall, Admiral William D. Leahy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, and Field Marshal Sir John Dill; standing (left to right) are Brigadier Leslie C. Hollis, Lieutenant General Sir Hastings Ismay, Admiral Ernest J. King, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, General Henry H. Arnold Chief of the U.S. Army Air Corps, and Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham.Leahy was instructed by U.S. Commander in Chief Franklin D. Roosevelt to tell Brigadier Lionel E. Whitby, also present at the Château, that it was F.D.R.’s wish that henceforth the advice of the Whitbys be followed in all Allied areas of combat. Leahy was Chair of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, F.D.R.Both Alan Brooke and Bill Leahy suffered grievously in World War II. Twelve of twenty-seven “Fighting Brookes of Colebrooke”, County Fermanagh, were killed40. Louise Leahy died postoperatively in Vichy, France, on April 21, 1942, after F.D.R. had urgently recalled her husband of thirty-eight years from his ambassadorship to Pétain, following Laval’s assumption of power. The Leahys had planned to return to Washington, D.C. as soon as Mrs. Leahy had sufficiently recovered, but Admiral Leahy embarked for New York on May 22, 1942 with his wife’s remains41.U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph 194469 2. Courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, Virginia, USA.
Mentions: The Queen Mary docked in Halifax on Sunday, September 10, 1944 and the Octagon conference started in Quebec City on Tuesday, September 12 (Fig. 4). After Whitby’s presentations, President Roosevelt told Admiral Leahy to tell Brigadier Whitby he should hereafter “request and require on behalf of the Commander-in-Chief” (as Ismay told JHW). Thus, on Thursday, September 14, Admiral Leahy came as the sole American, to Churchill’s “vast household dinner” 42*. Later that evening, Churchill told his secretary Colville that their gambit “our blood for your money” had, as Colville put it, succeeded “beyond the dreams of avarice”. Winston Churchill replied, “Beyond the dreams of justice”42.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: David S. Sheridan Professorship in Anaesthesia and Respiratory Therapy Harvard University, 1400 VFW Parkway, Boston, MA 02132-4927 USA.

ABSTRACT

On June 3, 1939, Donegal-born James C. Magee was appointed U.S. Army Surgeon General by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. On May 31, 1940, Magee appointed Professor Walter B. Cannon of Harvard University as Chairman of the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Shock and Transfusion. In 1938 Brigadier Lionel Whitby was appointed Director of an autonomous U.K. Army Blood Transfusion Service (ABTS). Whitby thereupon appointed Professor John Henry Biggart, Professor of Pathology, Queen’s University, his Northern Ireland Head of Blood Transfusion and Blood Banking. Winston S. Churchill was aware that Biggart’s service would be responsible for the needs of the Allied Forces and later for the United States Forces in Northern Ireland. Professor J.H. Biggart was known to Churchill from their 1926 post-prandial encounter in Belfast. The United States in 1941 determined that they were not able or prepared to fly U.S.-donated blood to Europe or Africa. The shortage of whole blood for United States forces required Whitby’s ABTS to supply all the blood for the Mediterranean Theatre and in Europe from the St. Lô breakout from Normandy until after the capture of Brussels on September 3, 1944 and then again in December 1944 for the Battle of the Bulge. Winston S. Churchill took Whitby to Quebec in September 1944 to meet with President Roosevelt and the combined U.S. Chiefs of Staff. Churchill used the supply of British blood to meet the needs of American Forces to prevent the U.S. threats to bankrupt the British Empire. President Roosevelt, already involved in his fourth campaign for the U.S. Presidency, accepted most of the British proposals for further credits. By Okinawa in the spring of 1945, under ABTS tutelage, all the Allies were adept in long-range transport and storage of large, 100,000 pint quantities of whole blood. Subsequently, Whitby and John Henry Biggart were knighted; U.S. Army Surgeon General Magee was sacked.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus