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Is nonverbal communication disrupted in interactions involving patients with schizophrenia?

Lavelle M, Healey PG, McCabe R - Schizophr Bull (2012)

Bottom Line: Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients' increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients' reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients' partners compensate for patients' reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients' reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient.Patients' symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners.Patients' increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electronic Engineering & Computer Science, University of London, London, UK. maryl@eecs.qmul.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonverbal communication is a critical feature of successful social interaction and interpersonal rapport. Social exclusion is a feature of schizophrenia. This experimental study investigated if the undisclosed presence of a patient with schizophrenia in interaction changes nonverbal communication (ie, speaker gesture and listener nodding).

Method: 3D motion-capture techniques recorded 20 patient (1 patient, 2 healthy participants) and 20 control (3 healthy participants) interactions. Participants rated their experience of rapport with each interacting partner. Patients' symptoms, social cognition, and executive functioning were assessed. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients' increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients' reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients' partners compensate for patients' reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients' reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient.

Results: Patients gestured less when speaking. Patients with more negative symptoms nodded less as listeners, while their partners appeared to compensate by gesturing more as speakers. Patients with more negative symptoms also gestured more when speaking, which, alongside increased negative symptoms and poorer social cognition, was associated with others experiencing poorer patient rapport.

Conclusions: Patients' symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners. Patients' increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport. This study provides specific evidence about how negative symptoms impact patients' social interactions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

2D image of 3-way interaction (with participants wearing the reflective markers) and the wire-frame representation in 3D.
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Figure 1: 2D image of 3-way interaction (with participants wearing the reflective markers) and the wire-frame representation in 3D.

Mentions: Interactions were recorded in a human interaction laboratory fitted with an optical-based Vicon motion-capture system, consisting of 12 infrared cameras and Vicon iQ software. Participants wore a top and a cap with 27 reflective markers attached (figure 1). Cameras detected the markers at 60 frames per second, resulting in a highly accurate 3D representation of participants’ movements over time (figure 1). After participants were seated, participants were instructed to discuss a moral dilemma called the Balloon Task (described elsewhere).30 Participants were interviewed after the interaction to complete the rapport questionnaire, to complete the cognitive assessments, and to briefly discuss their experience of the task. ML administered the PANSS and had a high inter-rater reliability score with her trainer RM (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.75).


Is nonverbal communication disrupted in interactions involving patients with schizophrenia?

Lavelle M, Healey PG, McCabe R - Schizophr Bull (2012)

2D image of 3-way interaction (with participants wearing the reflective markers) and the wire-frame representation in 3D.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756773&req=5

Figure 1: 2D image of 3-way interaction (with participants wearing the reflective markers) and the wire-frame representation in 3D.
Mentions: Interactions were recorded in a human interaction laboratory fitted with an optical-based Vicon motion-capture system, consisting of 12 infrared cameras and Vicon iQ software. Participants wore a top and a cap with 27 reflective markers attached (figure 1). Cameras detected the markers at 60 frames per second, resulting in a highly accurate 3D representation of participants’ movements over time (figure 1). After participants were seated, participants were instructed to discuss a moral dilemma called the Balloon Task (described elsewhere).30 Participants were interviewed after the interaction to complete the rapport questionnaire, to complete the cognitive assessments, and to briefly discuss their experience of the task. ML administered the PANSS and had a high inter-rater reliability score with her trainer RM (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.75).

Bottom Line: Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients' increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients' reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients' partners compensate for patients' reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients' reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient.Patients' symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners.Patients' increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electronic Engineering & Computer Science, University of London, London, UK. maryl@eecs.qmul.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonverbal communication is a critical feature of successful social interaction and interpersonal rapport. Social exclusion is a feature of schizophrenia. This experimental study investigated if the undisclosed presence of a patient with schizophrenia in interaction changes nonverbal communication (ie, speaker gesture and listener nodding).

Method: 3D motion-capture techniques recorded 20 patient (1 patient, 2 healthy participants) and 20 control (3 healthy participants) interactions. Participants rated their experience of rapport with each interacting partner. Patients' symptoms, social cognition, and executive functioning were assessed. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients' increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients' reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients' partners compensate for patients' reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients' reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient.

Results: Patients gestured less when speaking. Patients with more negative symptoms nodded less as listeners, while their partners appeared to compensate by gesturing more as speakers. Patients with more negative symptoms also gestured more when speaking, which, alongside increased negative symptoms and poorer social cognition, was associated with others experiencing poorer patient rapport.

Conclusions: Patients' symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners. Patients' increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport. This study provides specific evidence about how negative symptoms impact patients' social interactions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus