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Contributions to the field of neurotransmitters by Japanese scientists, and reflections on my own research.

Otsuka M - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Bottom Line: The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively.By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters.Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters.

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ABSTRACT
PART I DESCRIBES IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY SOME JAPANESE PIONEERS IN THE FIELD OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS: (their achievements in parentheses) J. Takamine (isolation and crystallization of adrenaline); K. Shimidzu (early hint for acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter); F. Kanematsu (donation of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute in Sydney); T. Hayashi (discovery of the excitatory action of glutamate and the inhibitory action of GABA); and I. Sano (discovery of a high concentration of dopamine in striatum, its reduction in a patient with Parkinson's disease and the treatment with DOPA). In Part II, I present some of my reflections on my research on neurotransmitters. The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively. By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters. Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Release of GABA from an inhibitory axon innervating the opener muscle of a lobster claw upon stimulation. E and I: stimulation of single excitatory and inhibitory axons. X: failure of assay. From Ref. 36.
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f5-83_047: Release of GABA from an inhibitory axon innervating the opener muscle of a lobster claw upon stimulation. E and I: stimulation of single excitatory and inhibitory axons. X: failure of assay. From Ref. 36.

Mentions: This experiment based on this simple principle clearly showed that GABA release from the superficial flexor muscle was increased upon stimulation of the nerve bundle containing an inhibitory axon. Ed dissected the nerve bundle separating the single inhibitory axon innervating the muscle, demonstrating his great skill in dissection. As a result it was shown that the GABA release was increased upon stimulation of the inhibitory axon. We asked Zach Hall, then a Ph. D. student, to join us, so that Ed, Les, Zach and I tried to increase the number of experiments and to make the results as convincing as possible. Ed proposed to try the opener muscle of big claw of the lobster and he himself skillfully dissected single excitatory and single inhibitory axons innervating the muscle. The GABA release was increased upon stimulation of the inhibitory, but not the excitatory, axon (Fig.5). People worked hard until past midnight and I was astonished by the stamina shown by my colleagues, whereas I was exhausted. There was very little time left for us because Les, Zach and I were to leave the laboratory in a few months.


Contributions to the field of neurotransmitters by Japanese scientists, and reflections on my own research.

Otsuka M - Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. (2007)

Release of GABA from an inhibitory axon innervating the opener muscle of a lobster claw upon stimulation. E and I: stimulation of single excitatory and inhibitory axons. X: failure of assay. From Ref. 36.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756739&req=5

f5-83_047: Release of GABA from an inhibitory axon innervating the opener muscle of a lobster claw upon stimulation. E and I: stimulation of single excitatory and inhibitory axons. X: failure of assay. From Ref. 36.
Mentions: This experiment based on this simple principle clearly showed that GABA release from the superficial flexor muscle was increased upon stimulation of the nerve bundle containing an inhibitory axon. Ed dissected the nerve bundle separating the single inhibitory axon innervating the muscle, demonstrating his great skill in dissection. As a result it was shown that the GABA release was increased upon stimulation of the inhibitory axon. We asked Zach Hall, then a Ph. D. student, to join us, so that Ed, Les, Zach and I tried to increase the number of experiments and to make the results as convincing as possible. Ed proposed to try the opener muscle of big claw of the lobster and he himself skillfully dissected single excitatory and single inhibitory axons innervating the muscle. The GABA release was increased upon stimulation of the inhibitory, but not the excitatory, axon (Fig.5). People worked hard until past midnight and I was astonished by the stamina shown by my colleagues, whereas I was exhausted. There was very little time left for us because Les, Zach and I were to leave the laboratory in a few months.

Bottom Line: The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively.By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters.Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
PART I DESCRIBES IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY SOME JAPANESE PIONEERS IN THE FIELD OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS: (their achievements in parentheses) J. Takamine (isolation and crystallization of adrenaline); K. Shimidzu (early hint for acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter); F. Kanematsu (donation of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute in Sydney); T. Hayashi (discovery of the excitatory action of glutamate and the inhibitory action of GABA); and I. Sano (discovery of a high concentration of dopamine in striatum, its reduction in a patient with Parkinson's disease and the treatment with DOPA). In Part II, I present some of my reflections on my research on neurotransmitters. The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively. By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters. Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus