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Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an online sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

PCA score plot of 34 samples in test mixtures of key odorants containing ammonium at pH 6. Concentration of n-butyrate was below 10-4 M. Full cross validation was used and six electrodes were sufficient.
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f2-sensors-07-00103: PCA score plot of 34 samples in test mixtures of key odorants containing ammonium at pH 6. Concentration of n-butyrate was below 10-4 M. Full cross validation was used and six electrodes were sufficient.

Mentions: Due to the complexity of the test mixture, it was difficult to model any key odorant reasonably in their entire interval of concentrations. Data were sorted in ascending and descending orders, according to concentrations of key odorants, in an attempt to find a trend in the data. We could identify ammonium, when the concentration of n-butyrate was below 10-4 M. The number of samples which has concentration of n-butyrate below 10-4 M was 34 samples. The PCA score plot of these samples is shown in Fig. 2. Two PCs accounted for 97% of the variation. Six electrodes were sufficient (no. 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). The figure shows that the concentration of ammonium decreases diagonally, which indicates that ET is able to monitor ammonium in the mixture of key odorants.


Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings
PCA score plot of 34 samples in test mixtures of key odorants containing ammonium at pH 6. Concentration of n-butyrate was below 10-4 M. Full cross validation was used and six electrodes were sufficient.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756715&req=5

f2-sensors-07-00103: PCA score plot of 34 samples in test mixtures of key odorants containing ammonium at pH 6. Concentration of n-butyrate was below 10-4 M. Full cross validation was used and six electrodes were sufficient.
Mentions: Due to the complexity of the test mixture, it was difficult to model any key odorant reasonably in their entire interval of concentrations. Data were sorted in ascending and descending orders, according to concentrations of key odorants, in an attempt to find a trend in the data. We could identify ammonium, when the concentration of n-butyrate was below 10-4 M. The number of samples which has concentration of n-butyrate below 10-4 M was 34 samples. The PCA score plot of these samples is shown in Fig. 2. Two PCs accounted for 97% of the variation. Six electrodes were sufficient (no. 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). The figure shows that the concentration of ammonium decreases diagonally, which indicates that ET is able to monitor ammonium in the mixture of key odorants.

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an online sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus