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Gold nanostructures as a platform for combinational therapy in future cancer therapeutics.

Jelveh S, Chithrani DB - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts.In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy.In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca.

ABSTRACT
The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Use of gold nanoshells (GNSs) for PTT. Combined imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells using HER2-targeted GNSs. Scatter-based darkfield imaging of HER2 expression (top row), cell viability was tested via calcein staining (middle row), and silver stain assessment of GNS binding (bottom row). Reproduced with permission [13].
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f8-cancers-03-01081: Use of gold nanoshells (GNSs) for PTT. Combined imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells using HER2-targeted GNSs. Scatter-based darkfield imaging of HER2 expression (top row), cell viability was tested via calcein staining (middle row), and silver stain assessment of GNS binding (bottom row). Reproduced with permission [13].

Mentions: GNSs are another interesting type of gold-based NPs used in PTT. They are layered colloids with a nonconducting NP core covered by a thin gold shell [13,126,127]. By manipulating the thickness of the layers, these GNSs can be designed to absorb specific wavelengths of light and the most useful GNSs are those that absorb NIR light. West and coworkers have demonstrated how these GNSs can be engineered to both scatter light in the NIR enabling optical molecular cancer imaging and to absorb light for selective destruction of targeted cancer cells through PTT [13,126,127]. Figure 8 shows the capability of imaging using the laser scattering power of the GNSs. On exposure to 35 W/cm2 NIR light, human breast cancer cells incubated with GNSs in vitro undergo photothermally induced cell damage. Cells without GNSs display no loss in viability. Likewise, in vivo studies under magnetic resonance guidance reveal that solid tumors treated with GNSs and exposed to low-dose (4 W/cm2) NIR light incur a temperature increase of 37.4 °C within 4-6 minutes. The tissue displays coagulation, cell shrinkage, and loss of nuclear staining, indicating irreversible thermal damage. The tissue treated without GNSs attained significantly lower temperatures and appeared undamaged. The ability to control both wavelength-dependent scattering and absorption of GNSs offers the opportunity to design GNSs which provide, in a single NP, both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities [13,128,129].


Gold nanostructures as a platform for combinational therapy in future cancer therapeutics.

Jelveh S, Chithrani DB - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Use of gold nanoshells (GNSs) for PTT. Combined imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells using HER2-targeted GNSs. Scatter-based darkfield imaging of HER2 expression (top row), cell viability was tested via calcein staining (middle row), and silver stain assessment of GNS binding (bottom row). Reproduced with permission [13].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756404&req=5

f8-cancers-03-01081: Use of gold nanoshells (GNSs) for PTT. Combined imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells using HER2-targeted GNSs. Scatter-based darkfield imaging of HER2 expression (top row), cell viability was tested via calcein staining (middle row), and silver stain assessment of GNS binding (bottom row). Reproduced with permission [13].
Mentions: GNSs are another interesting type of gold-based NPs used in PTT. They are layered colloids with a nonconducting NP core covered by a thin gold shell [13,126,127]. By manipulating the thickness of the layers, these GNSs can be designed to absorb specific wavelengths of light and the most useful GNSs are those that absorb NIR light. West and coworkers have demonstrated how these GNSs can be engineered to both scatter light in the NIR enabling optical molecular cancer imaging and to absorb light for selective destruction of targeted cancer cells through PTT [13,126,127]. Figure 8 shows the capability of imaging using the laser scattering power of the GNSs. On exposure to 35 W/cm2 NIR light, human breast cancer cells incubated with GNSs in vitro undergo photothermally induced cell damage. Cells without GNSs display no loss in viability. Likewise, in vivo studies under magnetic resonance guidance reveal that solid tumors treated with GNSs and exposed to low-dose (4 W/cm2) NIR light incur a temperature increase of 37.4 °C within 4-6 minutes. The tissue displays coagulation, cell shrinkage, and loss of nuclear staining, indicating irreversible thermal damage. The tissue treated without GNSs attained significantly lower temperatures and appeared undamaged. The ability to control both wavelength-dependent scattering and absorption of GNSs offers the opportunity to design GNSs which provide, in a single NP, both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities [13,128,129].

Bottom Line: The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts.In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy.In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca.

ABSTRACT
The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus