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Gold nanostructures as a platform for combinational therapy in future cancer therapeutics.

Jelveh S, Chithrani DB - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts.In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy.In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca.

ABSTRACT
The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gold nanocages (GNCs) for PTT. Cancer cells that were treated with GNCs and then irradiated showed a well-defined circular zone of dead cells as revealed by: (A) calcein AM assay (where green fluorescence indicates live cells), and (B) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) assay (where red fluorescence indicates dead cells). In the control experiment, cells irradiated under the same conditions but without GNCs treatment maintained viability, as indicated by (C) calcein fluorescence assay and (D) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Cells treated with GNCs but irradiated at a lower power density remained alive, as shown by (E) calcein fluorescence assay and (F) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Reproduced with permission [120].
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f10-cancers-03-01081: Gold nanocages (GNCs) for PTT. Cancer cells that were treated with GNCs and then irradiated showed a well-defined circular zone of dead cells as revealed by: (A) calcein AM assay (where green fluorescence indicates live cells), and (B) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) assay (where red fluorescence indicates dead cells). In the control experiment, cells irradiated under the same conditions but without GNCs treatment maintained viability, as indicated by (C) calcein fluorescence assay and (D) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Cells treated with GNCs but irradiated at a lower power density remained alive, as shown by (E) calcein fluorescence assay and (F) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Reproduced with permission [120].

Mentions: So far, we have discussed the use of GNRs, GNSs, and HGNSs for PTT. Recently, GNCs have been introduced as a novel class of nanomaterials for PTT applications. As illustrated in Figure 10, Chen et al. used an optical spectroscopy based assay to further verify the damage caused in the presence of GNCs after laser irradiation [120]. The cells that were treated with immuno GNCs showed a well-defined circular zone of dead cells as revealed by: (A) calcein AM assay (where green fluorescence indicates the cells were live), and (B) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) assay (where red fluorescence indicates the cells were dead). Cells irradiated under the same conditions but without immuno GNC treatment maintained viability, as indicated by (C) calcein fluorescence assay and (D) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Cells treated with immuno GNCs but irradiated at a lower power density (0.5 W/cm2) for 5 min remained alive, as shown by (E) calcein fluorescence assay and (F) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. GNCs are emerging as a versatile NP platform for drug delivery and PTT. A recent review article by Xia and coworkers highlights recent developments in the use of GNCs for drug delivery and PTT [100]. Interested readers are encouraged to read recent articles published on this topic for further information [20,100,108,120,135-137]. In addition, GNCs have also been explored as a contrast agent in optical coherence tomography, and photoacoustic tomography. So far, we have discussed the possibility of using gold nanostructures for radiation therapy, drug delivery and PTT. Recently, researchers have expressed interest in the use of gold nanostructures for PDT, as discussed in the next section.


Gold nanostructures as a platform for combinational therapy in future cancer therapeutics.

Jelveh S, Chithrani DB - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Gold nanocages (GNCs) for PTT. Cancer cells that were treated with GNCs and then irradiated showed a well-defined circular zone of dead cells as revealed by: (A) calcein AM assay (where green fluorescence indicates live cells), and (B) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) assay (where red fluorescence indicates dead cells). In the control experiment, cells irradiated under the same conditions but without GNCs treatment maintained viability, as indicated by (C) calcein fluorescence assay and (D) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Cells treated with GNCs but irradiated at a lower power density remained alive, as shown by (E) calcein fluorescence assay and (F) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Reproduced with permission [120].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756404&req=5

f10-cancers-03-01081: Gold nanocages (GNCs) for PTT. Cancer cells that were treated with GNCs and then irradiated showed a well-defined circular zone of dead cells as revealed by: (A) calcein AM assay (where green fluorescence indicates live cells), and (B) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) assay (where red fluorescence indicates dead cells). In the control experiment, cells irradiated under the same conditions but without GNCs treatment maintained viability, as indicated by (C) calcein fluorescence assay and (D) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Cells treated with GNCs but irradiated at a lower power density remained alive, as shown by (E) calcein fluorescence assay and (F) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Reproduced with permission [120].
Mentions: So far, we have discussed the use of GNRs, GNSs, and HGNSs for PTT. Recently, GNCs have been introduced as a novel class of nanomaterials for PTT applications. As illustrated in Figure 10, Chen et al. used an optical spectroscopy based assay to further verify the damage caused in the presence of GNCs after laser irradiation [120]. The cells that were treated with immuno GNCs showed a well-defined circular zone of dead cells as revealed by: (A) calcein AM assay (where green fluorescence indicates the cells were live), and (B) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) assay (where red fluorescence indicates the cells were dead). Cells irradiated under the same conditions but without immuno GNC treatment maintained viability, as indicated by (C) calcein fluorescence assay and (D) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. Cells treated with immuno GNCs but irradiated at a lower power density (0.5 W/cm2) for 5 min remained alive, as shown by (E) calcein fluorescence assay and (F) the lack of intracellular EthD-1 uptake. GNCs are emerging as a versatile NP platform for drug delivery and PTT. A recent review article by Xia and coworkers highlights recent developments in the use of GNCs for drug delivery and PTT [100]. Interested readers are encouraged to read recent articles published on this topic for further information [20,100,108,120,135-137]. In addition, GNCs have also been explored as a contrast agent in optical coherence tomography, and photoacoustic tomography. So far, we have discussed the possibility of using gold nanostructures for radiation therapy, drug delivery and PTT. Recently, researchers have expressed interest in the use of gold nanostructures for PDT, as discussed in the next section.

Bottom Line: The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts.In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy.In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca.

ABSTRACT
The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus