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Growth factor mediated signaling in pancreatic pathogenesis.

Nandy D, Mukhopadhyay D - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis.Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors.However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu.

ABSTRACT
Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Variable expression of VEGF and VEGFRs in normal pancreas, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.
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f3-cancers-03-00841: Variable expression of VEGF and VEGFRs in normal pancreas, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.

Mentions: The regulation of VEGF expression in tumor cells is a complex process that includes growth factors, genetic alterations and hypoxia [27–30]. In hypoxia, VEGF production is upregulated by increasing its gene transcription and mRNA stability [31]. Some studies report that a protein called intratumoral tissue VEGF (t-VEGF) protein was upregulated in various malignant conditions. These studies also found some correlation between the t-VEGF and clinicopathological factors of the disease (in particular, progression and metastasis) [32–34]. Studies have also shown that rapid progression and poor prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma correlates with high t-VEGF levels (Figure 3) [34–36]. Pancreatic carcinomas are usually unresectable making it difficult to measure t-VEGF from tissue samples. Thus, Kobayashi and co-workers (2005) measured the plasma VEGF levels of pancreatic cancer patients to assess its usefulness as a tumor marker for distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from chronic pancreatitis [37].


Growth factor mediated signaling in pancreatic pathogenesis.

Nandy D, Mukhopadhyay D - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Variable expression of VEGF and VEGFRs in normal pancreas, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756392&req=5

f3-cancers-03-00841: Variable expression of VEGF and VEGFRs in normal pancreas, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.
Mentions: The regulation of VEGF expression in tumor cells is a complex process that includes growth factors, genetic alterations and hypoxia [27–30]. In hypoxia, VEGF production is upregulated by increasing its gene transcription and mRNA stability [31]. Some studies report that a protein called intratumoral tissue VEGF (t-VEGF) protein was upregulated in various malignant conditions. These studies also found some correlation between the t-VEGF and clinicopathological factors of the disease (in particular, progression and metastasis) [32–34]. Studies have also shown that rapid progression and poor prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma correlates with high t-VEGF levels (Figure 3) [34–36]. Pancreatic carcinomas are usually unresectable making it difficult to measure t-VEGF from tissue samples. Thus, Kobayashi and co-workers (2005) measured the plasma VEGF levels of pancreatic cancer patients to assess its usefulness as a tumor marker for distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from chronic pancreatitis [37].

Bottom Line: Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis.Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors.However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu.

ABSTRACT
Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus