Limits...
Tumor acidity as evolutionary spite.

Alfarouk KO, Muddathir AK, Shayoub ME - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect.Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process.Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. Alfarouk@hala-alfarouk.org.

ABSTRACT
Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A comparison between the interaction spaces presented by the spite models proposed by Hamilton (left panel) and Wilson (right panel). Mutualism could be represented through the support of tumor growth by nonmalignant cells [30]. Moreover, some cancer cells become addicted to InterLeukin-3 to survive (primed cell for death) and so benefit from the immune system, and this is a kind of selfishness [31]. Yet, microenvironment acidity-induced cancer spite (MAICS) results in excessive cell death and eventually might prevent its spreadability and so it lies under the altruism umbrella because it results in an encapsulated tumor [32]. Cannibalism at the end results in death of both normal and malignant cells under the context of organismal selection so it is compatible with spite. Therefore, it would be very interesting if further studies carry on for determining how tumors handle the thresholds of the four quadrants.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756368&req=5

f1-cancers-03-00408: A comparison between the interaction spaces presented by the spite models proposed by Hamilton (left panel) and Wilson (right panel). Mutualism could be represented through the support of tumor growth by nonmalignant cells [30]. Moreover, some cancer cells become addicted to InterLeukin-3 to survive (primed cell for death) and so benefit from the immune system, and this is a kind of selfishness [31]. Yet, microenvironment acidity-induced cancer spite (MAICS) results in excessive cell death and eventually might prevent its spreadability and so it lies under the altruism umbrella because it results in an encapsulated tumor [32]. Cannibalism at the end results in death of both normal and malignant cells under the context of organismal selection so it is compatible with spite. Therefore, it would be very interesting if further studies carry on for determining how tumors handle the thresholds of the four quadrants.

Mentions: Here, we propose that aerobic glycolysis confers an evolutionary advantage due to an adaptive strategy that is commonly termed “spite”. In brief, an organism can evolve a less fit phenotype only if it alters the local adaptive landscape in such a way that it reduces the fitness of all competing populations even more. So, cancer cells, as actors, increase their fitness compared to normal cells as recipients. The acidic environment will select for acid-adapted phenotypes not the glycolytic phenotype. Only after this adaptation will the glycolytic phenotype confer an advantage. This combination of phenotypes then confers an advantage because it increases extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation to facilitate invasion, induces death in normal cells, increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, and reduces the effectiveness of cytotoxic T cells in generating an immune response to tumor antigens. In this general theory, there has developed two types of spites: (i) Hamiltonian spite and (ii) Wilsonian spite, which is a modified Hamiltonian spite because he added a third party that gains benefit or costs the interaction of actor and recipient [4] that could be represented by the immune system in our model (z-axis) (see Figure 1). Here, we propose the environment as an additional fourth dimension because spite might not occur in the absence of a suitable environment (see Figure 2a).


Tumor acidity as evolutionary spite.

Alfarouk KO, Muddathir AK, Shayoub ME - Cancers (Basel) (2011)

A comparison between the interaction spaces presented by the spite models proposed by Hamilton (left panel) and Wilson (right panel). Mutualism could be represented through the support of tumor growth by nonmalignant cells [30]. Moreover, some cancer cells become addicted to InterLeukin-3 to survive (primed cell for death) and so benefit from the immune system, and this is a kind of selfishness [31]. Yet, microenvironment acidity-induced cancer spite (MAICS) results in excessive cell death and eventually might prevent its spreadability and so it lies under the altruism umbrella because it results in an encapsulated tumor [32]. Cannibalism at the end results in death of both normal and malignant cells under the context of organismal selection so it is compatible with spite. Therefore, it would be very interesting if further studies carry on for determining how tumors handle the thresholds of the four quadrants.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756368&req=5

f1-cancers-03-00408: A comparison between the interaction spaces presented by the spite models proposed by Hamilton (left panel) and Wilson (right panel). Mutualism could be represented through the support of tumor growth by nonmalignant cells [30]. Moreover, some cancer cells become addicted to InterLeukin-3 to survive (primed cell for death) and so benefit from the immune system, and this is a kind of selfishness [31]. Yet, microenvironment acidity-induced cancer spite (MAICS) results in excessive cell death and eventually might prevent its spreadability and so it lies under the altruism umbrella because it results in an encapsulated tumor [32]. Cannibalism at the end results in death of both normal and malignant cells under the context of organismal selection so it is compatible with spite. Therefore, it would be very interesting if further studies carry on for determining how tumors handle the thresholds of the four quadrants.
Mentions: Here, we propose that aerobic glycolysis confers an evolutionary advantage due to an adaptive strategy that is commonly termed “spite”. In brief, an organism can evolve a less fit phenotype only if it alters the local adaptive landscape in such a way that it reduces the fitness of all competing populations even more. So, cancer cells, as actors, increase their fitness compared to normal cells as recipients. The acidic environment will select for acid-adapted phenotypes not the glycolytic phenotype. Only after this adaptation will the glycolytic phenotype confer an advantage. This combination of phenotypes then confers an advantage because it increases extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation to facilitate invasion, induces death in normal cells, increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, and reduces the effectiveness of cytotoxic T cells in generating an immune response to tumor antigens. In this general theory, there has developed two types of spites: (i) Hamiltonian spite and (ii) Wilsonian spite, which is a modified Hamiltonian spite because he added a third party that gains benefit or costs the interaction of actor and recipient [4] that could be represented by the immune system in our model (z-axis) (see Figure 1). Here, we propose the environment as an additional fourth dimension because spite might not occur in the absence of a suitable environment (see Figure 2a).

Bottom Line: Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect.Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process.Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. Alfarouk@hala-alfarouk.org.

ABSTRACT
Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus