Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review.
Bottom Line: In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect.Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys.Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission.
Affiliation: Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Évolutive (UMR 5175), Université Montpellier 3, Route de Mende, 34199 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The genus Stomoxys (Diptera: Muscidae) contains 18 described species . They are obligate blood-sucking insects and some species are considered significant economic pests of livestock and other warm-blooded animals in many parts of the world . Stomoxys calcitrans is a cosmopolitan species. In addition to S. calcitrans, several other stomoxyine flies also readily attack domestic animals, including S. niger, S. sitiens, and S. indicus . Both male and female stable flies feed on blood and they are often aggressive and persistent feeders; they even can attack humans in the absence of preferred hosts. It has been recently shown that those flies (S. calcitrans and S. niger) also take sugars from flowers or ripe fruits . Although they are most active and problematic around livestock farms, they can also be a nuisance insect on coastal beaches and in residential areas near agricultural production  (Figure 1).Figure 1.
Affiliation: Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Évolutive (UMR 5175), Université Montpellier 3, Route de Mende, 34199 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.