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In this issue of Adipocyte.

Samad AM - Adipocyte (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies; San Diego, CA USA.

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While dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) may differentiate into adipocytes, they also have the ability to differentiate into other cell types... In this review, Wei et al. discuss the dedifferentiation of these mature adipocytes, the similarities and differences between DFAT cells and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the research surrounding the conditions needed for these DFAT cells to redifferentiate into other possible cell types that could one day aid in disease treatment such as infarcted cardiac tissue repair and central nervous system recovery... With studies showing that adipose tissue plays a central role in obesity as well as diet-induced insulin resistance, recent research has attempted to understand the role of adipose tissue inflammation as well as the impact that adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk has on insulin sensitivity... In this brief report, Liu, Samad, and Mueller introduce a unique mouse model in order to observe the interactions between adipocytes and breast cancer cells in a tumor microenvironment... This microenvironment, which is increasingly important with regards to breast cancer growth and progression, has been shown to contain a high adipocyte count which can contribute to the production of endocrine, inflammatory, and angiogenic factors and thus effecting breast cancer cells in close proximity... Their results suggest that the adipocyte leptin-aromatase-estrogen axis in the tumor microenvironment drive hormone-dependent breast cancer, and that this may be an important mechanism that increases the risk of developing breast cancer in obese women... States of low grade inflammation, most commonly associated with obesity are characterized by macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine production... This brief report by Eguchi and Feldstein focuses on the activation of the lysosomal Cathepsin D and mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophied adipocytes early during weight gain as a potential mechanism of adipocyte death and ensuing inflammation (Fig.  2)... As recent studies have shown, adipocytes may have a direct effect on tumor cell survival, proliferation, and migration... This brief report by authors Wagner, Bjerkvig, Wiig, and Dudley looks at three tumor models in order to examine the theory that dysfunctional tumor-associated adipocytes contribute to tumor inflammation... The authors found that adipose tissues in the vicinity of tumors produced three times the levels of IL-6, in turn stimulating macrophage differentiation and adhesion... Additionally, adipocytes associated with tumors exhibit membrane rupture as well as other signs of necrotic cell death, which has been known to stimulate a multitude of inflammatory responses further supporting the idea that adipose dysfunction can play a key role in tumor progression, especially in cases where the tumor is in close proximity to existing adipose tissue such as breast cancer (Fig.  3)... This commentary by Noa Noy puts the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) in the spotlight, highlighting how it can potentially protect mice from obesity brought on by a diet high in fat... The author discusses how RA is able to counteract adipogenesis by activating the CRABP-II/RAR pathway, and as a result moderates the formation and inhibiting the differentiation of new fat cells despite the presence of a high fat diet... In addition, in mature fat cells, RA is able to upregulate the expression of genes which enhance insulin response, energy dissipation, and lipid oxidation, thus further protecting the mouse from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

No MeSH data available.


Figure 3. Figure detail from Wagner et al., p. 179
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Figure 3: Figure 3. Figure detail from Wagner et al., p. 179

Mentions: As recent studies have shown, adipocytes may have a direct effect on tumor cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This brief report by authors Wagner, Bjerkvig, Wiig, and Dudley looks at three tumor models in order to examine the theory that dysfunctional tumor-associated adipocytes contribute to tumor inflammation. The authors found that adipose tissues in the vicinity of tumors produced three times the levels of IL-6, in turn stimulating macrophage differentiation and adhesion. Additionally, adipocytes associated with tumors exhibit membrane rupture as well as other signs of necrotic cell death, which has been known to stimulate a multitude of inflammatory responses further supporting the idea that adipose dysfunction can play a key role in tumor progression, especially in cases where the tumor is in close proximity to existing adipose tissue such as breast cancer (Fig. 3).


In this issue of Adipocyte.

Samad AM - Adipocyte (2013)

Figure 3. Figure detail from Wagner et al., p. 179
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756098&req=5

Figure 3: Figure 3. Figure detail from Wagner et al., p. 179
Mentions: As recent studies have shown, adipocytes may have a direct effect on tumor cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This brief report by authors Wagner, Bjerkvig, Wiig, and Dudley looks at three tumor models in order to examine the theory that dysfunctional tumor-associated adipocytes contribute to tumor inflammation. The authors found that adipose tissues in the vicinity of tumors produced three times the levels of IL-6, in turn stimulating macrophage differentiation and adhesion. Additionally, adipocytes associated with tumors exhibit membrane rupture as well as other signs of necrotic cell death, which has been known to stimulate a multitude of inflammatory responses further supporting the idea that adipose dysfunction can play a key role in tumor progression, especially in cases where the tumor is in close proximity to existing adipose tissue such as breast cancer (Fig. 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies; San Diego, CA USA.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

While dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) may differentiate into adipocytes, they also have the ability to differentiate into other cell types... In this review, Wei et al. discuss the dedifferentiation of these mature adipocytes, the similarities and differences between DFAT cells and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the research surrounding the conditions needed for these DFAT cells to redifferentiate into other possible cell types that could one day aid in disease treatment such as infarcted cardiac tissue repair and central nervous system recovery... With studies showing that adipose tissue plays a central role in obesity as well as diet-induced insulin resistance, recent research has attempted to understand the role of adipose tissue inflammation as well as the impact that adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk has on insulin sensitivity... In this brief report, Liu, Samad, and Mueller introduce a unique mouse model in order to observe the interactions between adipocytes and breast cancer cells in a tumor microenvironment... This microenvironment, which is increasingly important with regards to breast cancer growth and progression, has been shown to contain a high adipocyte count which can contribute to the production of endocrine, inflammatory, and angiogenic factors and thus effecting breast cancer cells in close proximity... Their results suggest that the adipocyte leptin-aromatase-estrogen axis in the tumor microenvironment drive hormone-dependent breast cancer, and that this may be an important mechanism that increases the risk of developing breast cancer in obese women... States of low grade inflammation, most commonly associated with obesity are characterized by macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine production... This brief report by Eguchi and Feldstein focuses on the activation of the lysosomal Cathepsin D and mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophied adipocytes early during weight gain as a potential mechanism of adipocyte death and ensuing inflammation (Fig.  2)... As recent studies have shown, adipocytes may have a direct effect on tumor cell survival, proliferation, and migration... This brief report by authors Wagner, Bjerkvig, Wiig, and Dudley looks at three tumor models in order to examine the theory that dysfunctional tumor-associated adipocytes contribute to tumor inflammation... The authors found that adipose tissues in the vicinity of tumors produced three times the levels of IL-6, in turn stimulating macrophage differentiation and adhesion... Additionally, adipocytes associated with tumors exhibit membrane rupture as well as other signs of necrotic cell death, which has been known to stimulate a multitude of inflammatory responses further supporting the idea that adipose dysfunction can play a key role in tumor progression, especially in cases where the tumor is in close proximity to existing adipose tissue such as breast cancer (Fig.  3)... This commentary by Noa Noy puts the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) in the spotlight, highlighting how it can potentially protect mice from obesity brought on by a diet high in fat... The author discusses how RA is able to counteract adipogenesis by activating the CRABP-II/RAR pathway, and as a result moderates the formation and inhibiting the differentiation of new fat cells despite the presence of a high fat diet... In addition, in mature fat cells, RA is able to upregulate the expression of genes which enhance insulin response, energy dissipation, and lipid oxidation, thus further protecting the mouse from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

No MeSH data available.