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Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

Hussein SZ, Mohd Yusoff K, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues.The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey.The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.) and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in two time points (1 and 7 days). Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

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Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression in the paw tissues.Rats were pre-treated with: (A) D.W., (B) 2 g/kg Gelam honey, (C) D.W.+Carr., (D) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 1 day+Carr., (E) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 7 days+Carr. and (F) 10 mg/kg IND.+Carr. All figures were magnified by 200X. The arrows indicated positive staining of COX-2 (400X). (G) Comparison of the percentage of cells stained with COX-2 in rats paw tissues. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). D.W: Distilled water, Carr.: Carrageenan and IND: Indomethacin. a: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the inflammation group (D.W.+Carr.). b: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the Indomethacin group (10 mg/kg IND+Carr.). c: Significantly different (p<0.05) between different honey doses at the same time point (1 day or 7 days). d: Significantly different (p<0.05) between the same honey dose at different time points (1 day and 7 days).
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pone-0072365-g005: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression in the paw tissues.Rats were pre-treated with: (A) D.W., (B) 2 g/kg Gelam honey, (C) D.W.+Carr., (D) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 1 day+Carr., (E) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 7 days+Carr. and (F) 10 mg/kg IND.+Carr. All figures were magnified by 200X. The arrows indicated positive staining of COX-2 (400X). (G) Comparison of the percentage of cells stained with COX-2 in rats paw tissues. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). D.W: Distilled water, Carr.: Carrageenan and IND: Indomethacin. a: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the inflammation group (D.W.+Carr.). b: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the Indomethacin group (10 mg/kg IND+Carr.). c: Significantly different (p<0.05) between different honey doses at the same time point (1 day or 7 days). d: Significantly different (p<0.05) between the same honey dose at different time points (1 day and 7 days).

Mentions: To further elucidate the mechanism of action of Gelam honey, the protein expressions of some pro-inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 and TNF-α was determined using immunohistochemistry technique. As shown in Figures 5A & 5B, the normal control groups showed no expression of COX-2. However, the carrageenan-induced inflammation group showed significantly increased expression of COX-2 (80.6%) (Figure 5C), which was reduced significantly with pre-treatment of Gelam honey (1 or 2 g/kg of body weight) or Indomethacin (10 mg/kg of body weight), for 1 and 7 days (Figures 5D–5F). As expected, pre-treatment with 2 g/kg of body weight of Gelam honey for 7 days showed significantly higher reduction effect of COX-2 expression (26.29%) when compared with 1 day (44.14%) (Figure 5G).


Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

Hussein SZ, Mohd Yusoff K, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA - PLoS ONE (2013)

Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression in the paw tissues.Rats were pre-treated with: (A) D.W., (B) 2 g/kg Gelam honey, (C) D.W.+Carr., (D) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 1 day+Carr., (E) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 7 days+Carr. and (F) 10 mg/kg IND.+Carr. All figures were magnified by 200X. The arrows indicated positive staining of COX-2 (400X). (G) Comparison of the percentage of cells stained with COX-2 in rats paw tissues. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). D.W: Distilled water, Carr.: Carrageenan and IND: Indomethacin. a: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the inflammation group (D.W.+Carr.). b: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the Indomethacin group (10 mg/kg IND+Carr.). c: Significantly different (p<0.05) between different honey doses at the same time point (1 day or 7 days). d: Significantly different (p<0.05) between the same honey dose at different time points (1 day and 7 days).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone-0072365-g005: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression in the paw tissues.Rats were pre-treated with: (A) D.W., (B) 2 g/kg Gelam honey, (C) D.W.+Carr., (D) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 1 day+Carr., (E) 2 g/kg Gelam honey for 7 days+Carr. and (F) 10 mg/kg IND.+Carr. All figures were magnified by 200X. The arrows indicated positive staining of COX-2 (400X). (G) Comparison of the percentage of cells stained with COX-2 in rats paw tissues. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). D.W: Distilled water, Carr.: Carrageenan and IND: Indomethacin. a: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the inflammation group (D.W.+Carr.). b: Significantly different (p<0.05) from the Indomethacin group (10 mg/kg IND+Carr.). c: Significantly different (p<0.05) between different honey doses at the same time point (1 day or 7 days). d: Significantly different (p<0.05) between the same honey dose at different time points (1 day and 7 days).
Mentions: To further elucidate the mechanism of action of Gelam honey, the protein expressions of some pro-inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 and TNF-α was determined using immunohistochemistry technique. As shown in Figures 5A & 5B, the normal control groups showed no expression of COX-2. However, the carrageenan-induced inflammation group showed significantly increased expression of COX-2 (80.6%) (Figure 5C), which was reduced significantly with pre-treatment of Gelam honey (1 or 2 g/kg of body weight) or Indomethacin (10 mg/kg of body weight), for 1 and 7 days (Figures 5D–5F). As expected, pre-treatment with 2 g/kg of body weight of Gelam honey for 7 days showed significantly higher reduction effect of COX-2 expression (26.29%) when compared with 1 day (44.14%) (Figure 5G).

Bottom Line: Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues.The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey.The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.) and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in two time points (1 and 7 days). Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus