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Two invaders instead of one: the true identity of species under the name Ceracis cucullatus (Coleoptera: Ciidae).

Antunes-Carvalho C, Lopes-Andrade C - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: As results, we reverse three previous junior synonymies of Cer. cucullatus, proposing Cer. lamellatus (Pic) and Cer. tabellifer (Mellié), both reinstated status and new combinations, as separate species.Based on these data, we discuss possible explanations to the successful invasion of Cer. tabellifer in Africa and elsewhere and its potential threat to native faunas of ciids.This study helps to fulfil an old gap in the literature on biological invasions, with considerably more studies on predatory species, disease vectors or potential pests of agricultural crops, than on non-pest fungivorous organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Neotropical obligate fungivorous beetle Ceracis cucullatus (Mellié) has attracted attention of coleopterists due to the increasing number of records of populations in Africa. Although its disjunct populations have been interpreted as a cohesive taxonomic unity, previous comparisons between African and Neotropical specimens revealed differences in their external morphology, causing uncertainty about the true unity of the species. Here, we compare the external morphology of specimens named Cer. cucullatus from several localities of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Afrotemperate and Oriental regions. As results, we reverse three previous junior synonymies of Cer. cucullatus, proposing Cer. lamellatus (Pic) and Cer. tabellifer (Mellié), both reinstated status and new combinations, as separate species. We also propose Enn. bilamellatum Pic as a new synonym of Cer. tabellifer. In face of these taxonomic changes, we identify Cer. tabellifer as the actual invasive species on African lands, instead of Cer. cucullatus as was previously accepted. Then, through historical records gathered from scientific collections and literature, and through examination of recently collected specimens from South Africa and Brazil, we provide data on host fungi and geographic distribution of Cer. tabellifer. Based on these data, we discuss possible explanations to the successful invasion of Cer. tabellifer in Africa and elsewhere and its potential threat to native faunas of ciids. This study helps to fulfil an old gap in the literature on biological invasions, with considerably more studies on predatory species, disease vectors or potential pests of agricultural crops, than on non-pest fungivorous organisms.

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Habitus of Ceracis lamellatus (Pic).A–C Paralectotype male, (A) dorsal view, (B) lateral view, (C) ventral view, (D) label data. E–F Paralectotype female, (E) dorsal view, (F) ventral view. All figures are in the same scale, except for labels. Scale bar  = 0.5 mm.
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pone-0072319-g004: Habitus of Ceracis lamellatus (Pic).A–C Paralectotype male, (A) dorsal view, (B) lateral view, (C) ventral view, (D) label data. E–F Paralectotype female, (E) dorsal view, (F) ventral view. All figures are in the same scale, except for labels. Scale bar  = 0.5 mm.

Mentions: Digital photographs of adult specimens were taken with a Canon EOS 1000D digital camera attached to a Zeiss Stemi 2000-C stereomicroscope. Photographs showing the prosternum were taken under a Zeiss Axiolab A1 compound microscope equipped with the same camera. Final images were the result of joining 20 to 50 photomicrographs at different focal depths using the image stacking software Zerene Stacker (v1.04). The names Cer. cucullatus, Cer. lamellatus and Cer. tabellifer used from now on refer to these species in the senses and combinations here proposed (Fig. 1), unless otherwise specified. For the sake of organization, we show images of specimens of the type series and labels of the three species consecutively (Figs. 3, 4, 5), a plate comparing sclerites of their male abdominal terminalia (Fig. 6), a comparison of development degree of pronotal projections in Cer. tabellifer (Fig. 7) and variation of morphology of the prosternum in the species (Fig. 8). Images and redescriptions of Cer. cucullatus and Cer. tabellifer are based on the respective male lectotype, here designated, and those of Cer. lamellatus on a male paralectotype. The specimen chosen as lectotype of Cer. lamellatus, here designated, was examined but could not be borrowed and was therefore not pictured. The syntypes of species treated in the present work were all labelled as lectotypes or paralectotypes by John F. Lawrence, but they were not officially designated in the literature. We preferred to maintain Lawrence's labels. Whole mount preparations followed the protocol described by Lopes-Andrade [14], and photographs were taken under a Zeiss Axiolab A1 compound microscope equipped with a Zeiss Axiocam Erc5S or a Canon EOS 1000D digital camera.


Two invaders instead of one: the true identity of species under the name Ceracis cucullatus (Coleoptera: Ciidae).

Antunes-Carvalho C, Lopes-Andrade C - PLoS ONE (2013)

Habitus of Ceracis lamellatus (Pic).A–C Paralectotype male, (A) dorsal view, (B) lateral view, (C) ventral view, (D) label data. E–F Paralectotype female, (E) dorsal view, (F) ventral view. All figures are in the same scale, except for labels. Scale bar  = 0.5 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756068&req=5

pone-0072319-g004: Habitus of Ceracis lamellatus (Pic).A–C Paralectotype male, (A) dorsal view, (B) lateral view, (C) ventral view, (D) label data. E–F Paralectotype female, (E) dorsal view, (F) ventral view. All figures are in the same scale, except for labels. Scale bar  = 0.5 mm.
Mentions: Digital photographs of adult specimens were taken with a Canon EOS 1000D digital camera attached to a Zeiss Stemi 2000-C stereomicroscope. Photographs showing the prosternum were taken under a Zeiss Axiolab A1 compound microscope equipped with the same camera. Final images were the result of joining 20 to 50 photomicrographs at different focal depths using the image stacking software Zerene Stacker (v1.04). The names Cer. cucullatus, Cer. lamellatus and Cer. tabellifer used from now on refer to these species in the senses and combinations here proposed (Fig. 1), unless otherwise specified. For the sake of organization, we show images of specimens of the type series and labels of the three species consecutively (Figs. 3, 4, 5), a plate comparing sclerites of their male abdominal terminalia (Fig. 6), a comparison of development degree of pronotal projections in Cer. tabellifer (Fig. 7) and variation of morphology of the prosternum in the species (Fig. 8). Images and redescriptions of Cer. cucullatus and Cer. tabellifer are based on the respective male lectotype, here designated, and those of Cer. lamellatus on a male paralectotype. The specimen chosen as lectotype of Cer. lamellatus, here designated, was examined but could not be borrowed and was therefore not pictured. The syntypes of species treated in the present work were all labelled as lectotypes or paralectotypes by John F. Lawrence, but they were not officially designated in the literature. We preferred to maintain Lawrence's labels. Whole mount preparations followed the protocol described by Lopes-Andrade [14], and photographs were taken under a Zeiss Axiolab A1 compound microscope equipped with a Zeiss Axiocam Erc5S or a Canon EOS 1000D digital camera.

Bottom Line: As results, we reverse three previous junior synonymies of Cer. cucullatus, proposing Cer. lamellatus (Pic) and Cer. tabellifer (Mellié), both reinstated status and new combinations, as separate species.Based on these data, we discuss possible explanations to the successful invasion of Cer. tabellifer in Africa and elsewhere and its potential threat to native faunas of ciids.This study helps to fulfil an old gap in the literature on biological invasions, with considerably more studies on predatory species, disease vectors or potential pests of agricultural crops, than on non-pest fungivorous organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Neotropical obligate fungivorous beetle Ceracis cucullatus (Mellié) has attracted attention of coleopterists due to the increasing number of records of populations in Africa. Although its disjunct populations have been interpreted as a cohesive taxonomic unity, previous comparisons between African and Neotropical specimens revealed differences in their external morphology, causing uncertainty about the true unity of the species. Here, we compare the external morphology of specimens named Cer. cucullatus from several localities of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Afrotemperate and Oriental regions. As results, we reverse three previous junior synonymies of Cer. cucullatus, proposing Cer. lamellatus (Pic) and Cer. tabellifer (Mellié), both reinstated status and new combinations, as separate species. We also propose Enn. bilamellatum Pic as a new synonym of Cer. tabellifer. In face of these taxonomic changes, we identify Cer. tabellifer as the actual invasive species on African lands, instead of Cer. cucullatus as was previously accepted. Then, through historical records gathered from scientific collections and literature, and through examination of recently collected specimens from South Africa and Brazil, we provide data on host fungi and geographic distribution of Cer. tabellifer. Based on these data, we discuss possible explanations to the successful invasion of Cer. tabellifer in Africa and elsewhere and its potential threat to native faunas of ciids. This study helps to fulfil an old gap in the literature on biological invasions, with considerably more studies on predatory species, disease vectors or potential pests of agricultural crops, than on non-pest fungivorous organisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus