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A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

Barnes JC, Beaver KM, Boutwell BB - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying.The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350).This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR) interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350). This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Gun Carrying Prior to and After 9/11.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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pone-0070807-g001: The Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Gun Carrying Prior to and After 9/11.

Mentions: The interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR is plotted in Figure 1, which reveals that the predictive influence of 5-HTTLPR is contingent upon whether the respondent was interviewed before or after 9/11. As shown in the figure, 5-HTTLPR positively predicted gun carrying for respondents interviewed prior to 9/11/2001 (n = 632 total, 0.42% of LL homozygotes carried a gun, 0.71% of SL heterozygotes carried a gun, 3.57% of SS homozygotes carried a gun, b = 1.252, odds ratio = 3.499, standard error for b = .640, z = 1.957, p = .050). Respondents who were interviewed after 9/11/2001 showed no association between 5-HTTLPR and gun carrying (n = 1,718 total, 1.61% of LL homozygotes carried a gun, 1.50% of SL heterozygotes carried a gun, 0.84% of SS homozygotes carried a gun, b = −.266, odds ratio = .766, standard error for b = .290, z = −.919, p = .358). A coefficient difference test [19] indicated that the effects of 5-HTTLPR were significantly different across the two groups of respondents (z = 2.160, p<.05).


A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

Barnes JC, Beaver KM, Boutwell BB - PLoS ONE (2013)

The Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Gun Carrying Prior to and After 9/11.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3756025&req=5

pone-0070807-g001: The Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Gun Carrying Prior to and After 9/11.
Mentions: The interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR is plotted in Figure 1, which reveals that the predictive influence of 5-HTTLPR is contingent upon whether the respondent was interviewed before or after 9/11. As shown in the figure, 5-HTTLPR positively predicted gun carrying for respondents interviewed prior to 9/11/2001 (n = 632 total, 0.42% of LL homozygotes carried a gun, 0.71% of SL heterozygotes carried a gun, 3.57% of SS homozygotes carried a gun, b = 1.252, odds ratio = 3.499, standard error for b = .640, z = 1.957, p = .050). Respondents who were interviewed after 9/11/2001 showed no association between 5-HTTLPR and gun carrying (n = 1,718 total, 1.61% of LL homozygotes carried a gun, 1.50% of SL heterozygotes carried a gun, 0.84% of SS homozygotes carried a gun, b = −.266, odds ratio = .766, standard error for b = .290, z = −.919, p = .358). A coefficient difference test [19] indicated that the effects of 5-HTTLPR were significantly different across the two groups of respondents (z = 2.160, p<.05).

Bottom Line: Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying.The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350).This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR) interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350). This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus