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Large-scale distribution and activity of prokaryotes in deep-sea surface sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

Giovannelli D, Molari M, d'Errico G, Baldrighi E, Pala C, Manini E - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas.Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites.Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Marine Science - ISMAR, National Research Council of Italy - CNR, Ancona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a critical role in shaping the benthic communities.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on the biological descriptors of the prokaryotic community.The plots show all sampled stations (a), and those at 1,200 m (b), 2,000 m (c) and 3,000 m (d) in depth. N, North stations; W, West stations; C, Central stations; E, East stations.
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pone-0072996-g004: Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on the biological descriptors of the prokaryotic community.The plots show all sampled stations (a), and those at 1,200 m (b), 2,000 m (c) and 3,000 m (d) in depth. N, North stations; W, West stations; C, Central stations; E, East stations.

Mentions: To investigate the role of trophic and environmental factors on the distribution, activity and Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio, we performed non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis (nMDS). We plotted the nMDS of our whole dataset using prokaryotic variables (TPN, PBM, BAR, ECR and HCP) to describe the community in each sampled station (Figure 4a). The nMDS revealed a strong distribution of the stations along dimension 1, with a preponderant role of longitude in the ordination. The prokaryotic communities of stations from the East Mediterranean appeared to be very similar, clustering together in Figure 4a. The Central Mediterranean stations had the more diverse community, as these are interspersed with all of the other samples. To investigate depth-related effects, we repeated the nMDS analysis by separating the three main depths (Figure 4b–d). At 1,200 m in depth, the stations clustered together in discrete groups, based on the area, with the only exception of the West Mediterranean stations (Figure 4b). At 2,000 m (Figure 4c) and at 3,000 m (Figure 4d) the points were more interspersed.


Large-scale distribution and activity of prokaryotes in deep-sea surface sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

Giovannelli D, Molari M, d'Errico G, Baldrighi E, Pala C, Manini E - PLoS ONE (2013)

Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on the biological descriptors of the prokaryotic community.The plots show all sampled stations (a), and those at 1,200 m (b), 2,000 m (c) and 3,000 m (d) in depth. N, North stations; W, West stations; C, Central stations; E, East stations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3755984&req=5

pone-0072996-g004: Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on the biological descriptors of the prokaryotic community.The plots show all sampled stations (a), and those at 1,200 m (b), 2,000 m (c) and 3,000 m (d) in depth. N, North stations; W, West stations; C, Central stations; E, East stations.
Mentions: To investigate the role of trophic and environmental factors on the distribution, activity and Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio, we performed non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis (nMDS). We plotted the nMDS of our whole dataset using prokaryotic variables (TPN, PBM, BAR, ECR and HCP) to describe the community in each sampled station (Figure 4a). The nMDS revealed a strong distribution of the stations along dimension 1, with a preponderant role of longitude in the ordination. The prokaryotic communities of stations from the East Mediterranean appeared to be very similar, clustering together in Figure 4a. The Central Mediterranean stations had the more diverse community, as these are interspersed with all of the other samples. To investigate depth-related effects, we repeated the nMDS analysis by separating the three main depths (Figure 4b–d). At 1,200 m in depth, the stations clustered together in discrete groups, based on the area, with the only exception of the West Mediterranean stations (Figure 4b). At 2,000 m (Figure 4c) and at 3,000 m (Figure 4d) the points were more interspersed.

Bottom Line: Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas.Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites.Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Marine Science - ISMAR, National Research Council of Italy - CNR, Ancona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a critical role in shaping the benthic communities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus