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Robots with display screens: a robot with a more humanlike face display is perceived to have more mind and a better personality.

Broadbent E, Kumar V, Li X, Sollers J, Stafford RQ, MacDonald BA, Wegner DM - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans.The robot with the no-face display was rated least sociable and amiable.Eeriness was related to negative impressions of the robot's personality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans. One key dimension is robot appearance and in particular how humanlike the robot should be. Uncanny Valley theory suggests that robots look uncanny when their appearance approaches, but is not absolutely, human. An underlying mechanism may be that appearance affects users' perceptions of the robot's personality and mind. This study aimed to investigate how robot facial appearance affected perceptions of the robot's mind, personality and eeriness. A repeated measures experiment was conducted. 30 participants (14 females and 16 males, mean age 22.5 years) interacted with a Peoplebot healthcare robot under three conditions in a randomized order: the robot had either a humanlike face, silver face, or no-face on its display screen. Each time, the robot assisted the participant to take his/her blood pressure. Participants rated the robot's mind, personality, and eeriness in each condition. The robot with the humanlike face display was most preferred, rated as having most mind, being most humanlike, alive, sociable and amiable. The robot with the silver face display was least preferred, rated most eerie, moderate in mind, humanlikeness and amiability. The robot with the no-face display was rated least sociable and amiable. There was no difference in blood pressure readings between the robots with different face displays. Higher ratings of eeriness were related to impressions of the robot with the humanlike face display being less amiable, less sociable and less trustworthy. These results suggest that the more humanlike a healthcare robot's face display is, the more people attribute mind and positive personality characteristics to it. Eeriness was related to negative impressions of the robot's personality. Designers should be aware that the face on a robot's display screen can affect both the perceived mind and personality of the robot.

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The human-like face created by Facegen and how the 3D face looks with difference expressions and modifiers.Top row: normal face, smile, blink. Bottom row: speak “Ah”, speak “Oh”, speak “J”.
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pone-0072589-g002: The human-like face created by Facegen and how the 3D face looks with difference expressions and modifiers.Top row: normal face, smile, blink. Bottom row: speak “Ah”, speak “Oh”, speak “J”.

Mentions: The robot’s display shows a 3D virtual face, which is capable of expressing several emotions as well as rendering the correct lip movements for speech. The virtual face has over 6000 polygons and looks humanlike. Software FaceGen Modeller, from Singular Inversions, can generate realistic 3D faces randomly or from a real person’s photograph. The face model can be any race, gender or adult age with different expressions, phonemes and modifiers. It allows the user to control the texture color, symmetric shape and add extra parts such as eyeglasses or hats. To animate the virtual face model so that it speaks in a natural way, we use Xface, an open source 3D talking head based on the MPEG-4 standard. The Xface toolkit is optimized enough to achieve at least 25 frames per second with a polygon count up to 12000, using modest hardware. To create the faces, a photograph was taken of a male student volunteer of European ethnicity. Hair was removed in the software. Figure 2 shows the 3D virtual face created by Facegen and how the 3D face looks with difference expressions and modifiers.


Robots with display screens: a robot with a more humanlike face display is perceived to have more mind and a better personality.

Broadbent E, Kumar V, Li X, Sollers J, Stafford RQ, MacDonald BA, Wegner DM - PLoS ONE (2013)

The human-like face created by Facegen and how the 3D face looks with difference expressions and modifiers.Top row: normal face, smile, blink. Bottom row: speak “Ah”, speak “Oh”, speak “J”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3755978&req=5

pone-0072589-g002: The human-like face created by Facegen and how the 3D face looks with difference expressions and modifiers.Top row: normal face, smile, blink. Bottom row: speak “Ah”, speak “Oh”, speak “J”.
Mentions: The robot’s display shows a 3D virtual face, which is capable of expressing several emotions as well as rendering the correct lip movements for speech. The virtual face has over 6000 polygons and looks humanlike. Software FaceGen Modeller, from Singular Inversions, can generate realistic 3D faces randomly or from a real person’s photograph. The face model can be any race, gender or adult age with different expressions, phonemes and modifiers. It allows the user to control the texture color, symmetric shape and add extra parts such as eyeglasses or hats. To animate the virtual face model so that it speaks in a natural way, we use Xface, an open source 3D talking head based on the MPEG-4 standard. The Xface toolkit is optimized enough to achieve at least 25 frames per second with a polygon count up to 12000, using modest hardware. To create the faces, a photograph was taken of a male student volunteer of European ethnicity. Hair was removed in the software. Figure 2 shows the 3D virtual face created by Facegen and how the 3D face looks with difference expressions and modifiers.

Bottom Line: It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans.The robot with the no-face display was rated least sociable and amiable.Eeriness was related to negative impressions of the robot's personality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans. One key dimension is robot appearance and in particular how humanlike the robot should be. Uncanny Valley theory suggests that robots look uncanny when their appearance approaches, but is not absolutely, human. An underlying mechanism may be that appearance affects users' perceptions of the robot's personality and mind. This study aimed to investigate how robot facial appearance affected perceptions of the robot's mind, personality and eeriness. A repeated measures experiment was conducted. 30 participants (14 females and 16 males, mean age 22.5 years) interacted with a Peoplebot healthcare robot under three conditions in a randomized order: the robot had either a humanlike face, silver face, or no-face on its display screen. Each time, the robot assisted the participant to take his/her blood pressure. Participants rated the robot's mind, personality, and eeriness in each condition. The robot with the humanlike face display was most preferred, rated as having most mind, being most humanlike, alive, sociable and amiable. The robot with the silver face display was least preferred, rated most eerie, moderate in mind, humanlikeness and amiability. The robot with the no-face display was rated least sociable and amiable. There was no difference in blood pressure readings between the robots with different face displays. Higher ratings of eeriness were related to impressions of the robot with the humanlike face display being less amiable, less sociable and less trustworthy. These results suggest that the more humanlike a healthcare robot's face display is, the more people attribute mind and positive personality characteristics to it. Eeriness was related to negative impressions of the robot's personality. Designers should be aware that the face on a robot's display screen can affect both the perceived mind and personality of the robot.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus