Limits...
Effect of Casing Layer on Growth Promotion of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

Cho YS, Weon HY, Joh JH, Lim JH, Kim KY, Son ES, Lee CS, Cho BG - Mycobiology (2008)

Bottom Line: Bordetella was predominant in the bulk soil whereas Flavobacterium was predominant after sterilization of the casing layer soil.Total number of the bacterial genera in the casing layer soil was higher than that in the bulk soil.The results suggested that specific bacterial populations in the casing layer play an important role in the formation of primodia and the development of basidiome in P. ostreatus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Applied Biochemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Various bacteria were isolated from the casing layer soil of the culture bed of P. ostreatus and their role in fruiting body induction of the edible mushroom, P. ostreatus, was investigated. Analysis of the bacterial community isolated from the casing layer soil revealed that the composition of genera and number of cultivable bacteria were different for each sterilizing treatment. Bordetella was predominant in the bulk soil whereas Flavobacterium was predominant after sterilization of the casing layer soil. Fluorescent Pseudomonas was predominant in the non-sterilized casing layer soil. Total number of the bacterial genera in the casing layer soil was higher than that in the bulk soil. In particular, an increase in the fluorescent Pseudomonas population was observed in the non-sterilized casing layer accompanied by induction of fruiting body and enhanced mushroom production yield. The results suggested that specific bacterial populations in the casing layer play an important role in the formation of primodia and the development of basidiome in P. ostreatus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of yield patterns of Pleurotus ostreatus by casing layer treatment. □, control:general cultivated medium; ▓, N-S: Yield from non-sterilized casing layer soil; ■, S-S: Yield from sterilized casing soil.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3755250&req=5

Figure 1: Comparison of yield patterns of Pleurotus ostreatus by casing layer treatment. □, control:general cultivated medium; ▓, N-S: Yield from non-sterilized casing layer soil; ■, S-S: Yield from sterilized casing soil.

Mentions: P. ostreatus is the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world, followed by A. bisporus, and the demand for these edible mushrooms is increasing. Cultivation of P. ostreatus is based primarily on the techniques used for cultivating A. bisporus. Similarities in cultivation include a pre-treatment process of the growth medium through a casing layer soil. The study of this fruiting mechanism is especially so important that its potential possibly improve the output of industrially cultivated species. Given proper environmental conditions such as nutrition, light and temperature, the mushroom eventually develops a multi-cellular structure, also known as the fruiting body world (Baars et al., 2000). The biological mechanism of fruiting body formation has been reported previously by many sources (Caselton and Olesnicky, 1998; Kues, 2000; Kues and Liu, 2000). For example, a cover of a suitable material (the casing layer) on the surface of the spawn compost is required to change A. bisporus mycelia from the vegetative phase to a reproductive state (Eger, 1972; Hayes 1984; Peerally, 1979). The results of this study (Fig. 1) showed the casing layer treatment process and the subsequent growth of P. ostreatus as well as A. bisporus. P. ostreatus samples were cultivated on 2 types of soil, including the control. Mushroom yields were as follows: 950 grams from the control, 1,501 grams from the sterilized casing layer and 2,967 grams from the non-sterilized casing layer. Interestingly, the time of fruiting body initiation was approximately 6 days earlier with a non-sterilized casing layer than with a sterilized casing layer, and 9 days earlier than the control (data not shown). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether soil microorganisms were promoted with a casing layer. According to the results of this study, as modified from the methods of Eger (1972), mycelium of P. ostreatus grew well with the presence of a casing layer, and the formation period of fruit body was decreased. The population of the bacteria was higher in N-S than in the S-S, as was the fungal, fluorescent Pseudomonas and actinomycetes population densities. These results correspond with those of Rainly (1991). The density of Pseudomonas was high in S-S, and especially high in N-S. Since it has been suggested that fluorescent Pseudomonas promotes growth of P. ostreatus, this density may also have a close relationship with the formation of fruiting body. While the bulk soil had a high frequency of Beta and Gamma-proteobacteria, the sterilized treatment (S-S) showed CFB group bacteria and Beta-proteobacteria were predominant, similarly to the non-sterilized treatment: CFB group bacteria and Gamma-proteobacteria (Table 1). Accordingly, the casing layer soil may be considered a good material for promotion of the growth of P. ostreatus, as well as composting, which is very important for increasing yields of both P. ostreatus and A. bisporus. Recently, the harvesting ratio of P. ostreatus is smaller than A. bisporus, due to the omission of casing layers and composting processes. Also, many of the P. ostreatus cultivators in Korea are not aware of the role of microorganisms in the growth of P. ostreatus. In the future, the harvest yield of P. ostreatus may be increased if additional studies regarding beneficial microorganisms are performed, and interest in these areas expanded.


Effect of Casing Layer on Growth Promotion of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

Cho YS, Weon HY, Joh JH, Lim JH, Kim KY, Son ES, Lee CS, Cho BG - Mycobiology (2008)

Comparison of yield patterns of Pleurotus ostreatus by casing layer treatment. □, control:general cultivated medium; ▓, N-S: Yield from non-sterilized casing layer soil; ■, S-S: Yield from sterilized casing soil.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3755250&req=5

Figure 1: Comparison of yield patterns of Pleurotus ostreatus by casing layer treatment. □, control:general cultivated medium; ▓, N-S: Yield from non-sterilized casing layer soil; ■, S-S: Yield from sterilized casing soil.
Mentions: P. ostreatus is the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world, followed by A. bisporus, and the demand for these edible mushrooms is increasing. Cultivation of P. ostreatus is based primarily on the techniques used for cultivating A. bisporus. Similarities in cultivation include a pre-treatment process of the growth medium through a casing layer soil. The study of this fruiting mechanism is especially so important that its potential possibly improve the output of industrially cultivated species. Given proper environmental conditions such as nutrition, light and temperature, the mushroom eventually develops a multi-cellular structure, also known as the fruiting body world (Baars et al., 2000). The biological mechanism of fruiting body formation has been reported previously by many sources (Caselton and Olesnicky, 1998; Kues, 2000; Kues and Liu, 2000). For example, a cover of a suitable material (the casing layer) on the surface of the spawn compost is required to change A. bisporus mycelia from the vegetative phase to a reproductive state (Eger, 1972; Hayes 1984; Peerally, 1979). The results of this study (Fig. 1) showed the casing layer treatment process and the subsequent growth of P. ostreatus as well as A. bisporus. P. ostreatus samples were cultivated on 2 types of soil, including the control. Mushroom yields were as follows: 950 grams from the control, 1,501 grams from the sterilized casing layer and 2,967 grams from the non-sterilized casing layer. Interestingly, the time of fruiting body initiation was approximately 6 days earlier with a non-sterilized casing layer than with a sterilized casing layer, and 9 days earlier than the control (data not shown). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether soil microorganisms were promoted with a casing layer. According to the results of this study, as modified from the methods of Eger (1972), mycelium of P. ostreatus grew well with the presence of a casing layer, and the formation period of fruit body was decreased. The population of the bacteria was higher in N-S than in the S-S, as was the fungal, fluorescent Pseudomonas and actinomycetes population densities. These results correspond with those of Rainly (1991). The density of Pseudomonas was high in S-S, and especially high in N-S. Since it has been suggested that fluorescent Pseudomonas promotes growth of P. ostreatus, this density may also have a close relationship with the formation of fruiting body. While the bulk soil had a high frequency of Beta and Gamma-proteobacteria, the sterilized treatment (S-S) showed CFB group bacteria and Beta-proteobacteria were predominant, similarly to the non-sterilized treatment: CFB group bacteria and Gamma-proteobacteria (Table 1). Accordingly, the casing layer soil may be considered a good material for promotion of the growth of P. ostreatus, as well as composting, which is very important for increasing yields of both P. ostreatus and A. bisporus. Recently, the harvesting ratio of P. ostreatus is smaller than A. bisporus, due to the omission of casing layers and composting processes. Also, many of the P. ostreatus cultivators in Korea are not aware of the role of microorganisms in the growth of P. ostreatus. In the future, the harvest yield of P. ostreatus may be increased if additional studies regarding beneficial microorganisms are performed, and interest in these areas expanded.

Bottom Line: Bordetella was predominant in the bulk soil whereas Flavobacterium was predominant after sterilization of the casing layer soil.Total number of the bacterial genera in the casing layer soil was higher than that in the bulk soil.The results suggested that specific bacterial populations in the casing layer play an important role in the formation of primodia and the development of basidiome in P. ostreatus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Applied Biochemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Various bacteria were isolated from the casing layer soil of the culture bed of P. ostreatus and their role in fruiting body induction of the edible mushroom, P. ostreatus, was investigated. Analysis of the bacterial community isolated from the casing layer soil revealed that the composition of genera and number of cultivable bacteria were different for each sterilizing treatment. Bordetella was predominant in the bulk soil whereas Flavobacterium was predominant after sterilization of the casing layer soil. Fluorescent Pseudomonas was predominant in the non-sterilized casing layer soil. Total number of the bacterial genera in the casing layer soil was higher than that in the bulk soil. In particular, an increase in the fluorescent Pseudomonas population was observed in the non-sterilized casing layer accompanied by induction of fruiting body and enhanced mushroom production yield. The results suggested that specific bacterial populations in the casing layer play an important role in the formation of primodia and the development of basidiome in P. ostreatus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus