Limits...
The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

Marinotti O, Cerqueira GC, de Almeida LG, Ferro MI, Loreto EL, Zaha A, Teixeira SM, Wespiser AR, Almeida E Silva A, Schlindwein AD, Pacheco AC, Silva AL, Graveley BR, Walenz BP, Lima Bde A, Ribeiro CA, Nunes-Silva CG, de Carvalho CR, Soares CM, de Menezes CB, Matiolli C, Caffrey D, Araújo DA, de Oliveira DM, Golenbock D, Grisard EC, Fantinatti-Garboggini F, de Carvalho FM, Barcellos FG, Prosdocimi F, May G, Azevedo Junior GM, Guimarães GM, Goldman GH, Padilha IQ, Batista Jda S, Ferro JA, Ribeiro JM, Fietto JL, Dabbas KM, Cerdeira L, Agnez-Lima LF, Brocchi M, de Carvalho MO, Teixeira Mde M, Diniz Maia Mde M, Goldman MH, Cruz Schneider MP, Felipe MS, Hungria M, Nicolás MF, Pereira M, Montes MA, Cantão ME, Vincentz M, Rafael MS, Silverman N, Stoco PH, Souza RC, Vicentini R, Gazzinelli RT, Neves Rde O, Silva R, Astolfi-Filho S, Maciel TE, Urményi TP, Tadei WP, Camargo EP, de Vasconcelos AT - Nucleic Acids Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome.Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed.The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, Institute of Technology, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA, Laboratório de Bioinformática do Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Petrópolis, RJ 25651-075, Brasil, Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, UNESP -Universidade Estadual Paulista, SP 14884-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270901, Brasil, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA, Laboratório de Entomologia Médica IPEPATRO/FIOCRUZ, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brasil, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brasil, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 62042-280, Brasil, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Picos, PI 60740-000, Brasil, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA 66075-900, Brasil, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA, Informatics, The J. Craig Venter Institute, Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brasil, Departamento de Genética e Melhoramento, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG 36570-000, Brasil, Centro de Apoio Mul

ABSTRACT
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of gene organization between A. darlingi, A. gambiae and D. melanogaster. (A) Gene distribution along A. gambiae chromosomes and the location of their respective orthologs on the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. Black-edged vertical and horizontal bars represent A. gambiae and A. darlingi chromosomes and scaffolds. Colored lines within each bar indicate the location and strand of genes: the leftmost or uppermost column indicates the plus strand; the rightmost or bottommost column indicates the minus strand. The color of those genes denotes either the chromosome where A. gambiae genes are encoded or, in the case of lines representing A. darlingi genes, the A. gambiae chromosome where their respective orthologs are encoded. Gray colored lines represent either A. darlingi genes without orthologs in A. gambiae or genes with two or more homologs in distinct A. gambiae chromosomes. (B) Gene distribution along D. melanogaster chromosomes and the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. The results are presented in a schema equivalent to the one on panel A. (C) Distribution of A. darlingi orthologous genes along A. gambiae chromosome 2R. The five scaffolds with the longest alignment against chromosome 2R are depicted here. Each row contains black-edged horizontal bars representing either chromosomes (A. gambiae) or genomic scaffolds (A. darlingi). The green lines indicate the position and strand of the genes. The gray projections connect orthologous genes across organisms. Some of A. darlingi scaffolds had their orientation modified to facilitate the visualization of syntenic blocks.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3753621&req=5

gkt484-F2: Comparison of gene organization between A. darlingi, A. gambiae and D. melanogaster. (A) Gene distribution along A. gambiae chromosomes and the location of their respective orthologs on the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. Black-edged vertical and horizontal bars represent A. gambiae and A. darlingi chromosomes and scaffolds. Colored lines within each bar indicate the location and strand of genes: the leftmost or uppermost column indicates the plus strand; the rightmost or bottommost column indicates the minus strand. The color of those genes denotes either the chromosome where A. gambiae genes are encoded or, in the case of lines representing A. darlingi genes, the A. gambiae chromosome where their respective orthologs are encoded. Gray colored lines represent either A. darlingi genes without orthologs in A. gambiae or genes with two or more homologs in distinct A. gambiae chromosomes. (B) Gene distribution along D. melanogaster chromosomes and the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. The results are presented in a schema equivalent to the one on panel A. (C) Distribution of A. darlingi orthologous genes along A. gambiae chromosome 2R. The five scaffolds with the longest alignment against chromosome 2R are depicted here. Each row contains black-edged horizontal bars representing either chromosomes (A. gambiae) or genomic scaffolds (A. darlingi). The green lines indicate the position and strand of the genes. The gray projections connect orthologous genes across organisms. Some of A. darlingi scaffolds had their orientation modified to facilitate the visualization of syntenic blocks.

Mentions: In spite of ∼100 million years of evolutionary divergence between A. darlingi and A. gambiae, the gene synteny between their genomes is relatively well conserved. Translocation events have occurred but were mostly restricted to large intra-chromosomal rearrangements (Figure 2). The synteny between A. darlingi and D. melanogaster presents a different scenario: each one of the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds have orthologous genes scattered through different D. melanogaster chromosomes, which suggests a low degree of synteny (Figure 2B).Figure 2.


The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

Marinotti O, Cerqueira GC, de Almeida LG, Ferro MI, Loreto EL, Zaha A, Teixeira SM, Wespiser AR, Almeida E Silva A, Schlindwein AD, Pacheco AC, Silva AL, Graveley BR, Walenz BP, Lima Bde A, Ribeiro CA, Nunes-Silva CG, de Carvalho CR, Soares CM, de Menezes CB, Matiolli C, Caffrey D, Araújo DA, de Oliveira DM, Golenbock D, Grisard EC, Fantinatti-Garboggini F, de Carvalho FM, Barcellos FG, Prosdocimi F, May G, Azevedo Junior GM, Guimarães GM, Goldman GH, Padilha IQ, Batista Jda S, Ferro JA, Ribeiro JM, Fietto JL, Dabbas KM, Cerdeira L, Agnez-Lima LF, Brocchi M, de Carvalho MO, Teixeira Mde M, Diniz Maia Mde M, Goldman MH, Cruz Schneider MP, Felipe MS, Hungria M, Nicolás MF, Pereira M, Montes MA, Cantão ME, Vincentz M, Rafael MS, Silverman N, Stoco PH, Souza RC, Vicentini R, Gazzinelli RT, Neves Rde O, Silva R, Astolfi-Filho S, Maciel TE, Urményi TP, Tadei WP, Camargo EP, de Vasconcelos AT - Nucleic Acids Res. (2013)

Comparison of gene organization between A. darlingi, A. gambiae and D. melanogaster. (A) Gene distribution along A. gambiae chromosomes and the location of their respective orthologs on the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. Black-edged vertical and horizontal bars represent A. gambiae and A. darlingi chromosomes and scaffolds. Colored lines within each bar indicate the location and strand of genes: the leftmost or uppermost column indicates the plus strand; the rightmost or bottommost column indicates the minus strand. The color of those genes denotes either the chromosome where A. gambiae genes are encoded or, in the case of lines representing A. darlingi genes, the A. gambiae chromosome where their respective orthologs are encoded. Gray colored lines represent either A. darlingi genes without orthologs in A. gambiae or genes with two or more homologs in distinct A. gambiae chromosomes. (B) Gene distribution along D. melanogaster chromosomes and the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. The results are presented in a schema equivalent to the one on panel A. (C) Distribution of A. darlingi orthologous genes along A. gambiae chromosome 2R. The five scaffolds with the longest alignment against chromosome 2R are depicted here. Each row contains black-edged horizontal bars representing either chromosomes (A. gambiae) or genomic scaffolds (A. darlingi). The green lines indicate the position and strand of the genes. The gray projections connect orthologous genes across organisms. Some of A. darlingi scaffolds had their orientation modified to facilitate the visualization of syntenic blocks.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3753621&req=5

gkt484-F2: Comparison of gene organization between A. darlingi, A. gambiae and D. melanogaster. (A) Gene distribution along A. gambiae chromosomes and the location of their respective orthologs on the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. Black-edged vertical and horizontal bars represent A. gambiae and A. darlingi chromosomes and scaffolds. Colored lines within each bar indicate the location and strand of genes: the leftmost or uppermost column indicates the plus strand; the rightmost or bottommost column indicates the minus strand. The color of those genes denotes either the chromosome where A. gambiae genes are encoded or, in the case of lines representing A. darlingi genes, the A. gambiae chromosome where their respective orthologs are encoded. Gray colored lines represent either A. darlingi genes without orthologs in A. gambiae or genes with two or more homologs in distinct A. gambiae chromosomes. (B) Gene distribution along D. melanogaster chromosomes and the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds. The results are presented in a schema equivalent to the one on panel A. (C) Distribution of A. darlingi orthologous genes along A. gambiae chromosome 2R. The five scaffolds with the longest alignment against chromosome 2R are depicted here. Each row contains black-edged horizontal bars representing either chromosomes (A. gambiae) or genomic scaffolds (A. darlingi). The green lines indicate the position and strand of the genes. The gray projections connect orthologous genes across organisms. Some of A. darlingi scaffolds had their orientation modified to facilitate the visualization of syntenic blocks.
Mentions: In spite of ∼100 million years of evolutionary divergence between A. darlingi and A. gambiae, the gene synteny between their genomes is relatively well conserved. Translocation events have occurred but were mostly restricted to large intra-chromosomal rearrangements (Figure 2). The synteny between A. darlingi and D. melanogaster presents a different scenario: each one of the 12 largest A. darlingi scaffolds have orthologous genes scattered through different D. melanogaster chromosomes, which suggests a low degree of synteny (Figure 2B).Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome.Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed.The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, Institute of Technology, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA, Laboratório de Bioinformática do Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Petrópolis, RJ 25651-075, Brasil, Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, UNESP -Universidade Estadual Paulista, SP 14884-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270901, Brasil, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA, Laboratório de Entomologia Médica IPEPATRO/FIOCRUZ, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brasil, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brasil, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 62042-280, Brasil, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Picos, PI 60740-000, Brasil, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA 66075-900, Brasil, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA, Informatics, The J. Craig Venter Institute, Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brasil, Departamento de Genética e Melhoramento, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG 36570-000, Brasil, Centro de Apoio Mul

ABSTRACT
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus