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The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

Marinotti O, Cerqueira GC, de Almeida LG, Ferro MI, Loreto EL, Zaha A, Teixeira SM, Wespiser AR, Almeida E Silva A, Schlindwein AD, Pacheco AC, Silva AL, Graveley BR, Walenz BP, Lima Bde A, Ribeiro CA, Nunes-Silva CG, de Carvalho CR, Soares CM, de Menezes CB, Matiolli C, Caffrey D, Araújo DA, de Oliveira DM, Golenbock D, Grisard EC, Fantinatti-Garboggini F, de Carvalho FM, Barcellos FG, Prosdocimi F, May G, Azevedo Junior GM, Guimarães GM, Goldman GH, Padilha IQ, Batista Jda S, Ferro JA, Ribeiro JM, Fietto JL, Dabbas KM, Cerdeira L, Agnez-Lima LF, Brocchi M, de Carvalho MO, Teixeira Mde M, Diniz Maia Mde M, Goldman MH, Cruz Schneider MP, Felipe MS, Hungria M, Nicolás MF, Pereira M, Montes MA, Cantão ME, Vincentz M, Rafael MS, Silverman N, Stoco PH, Souza RC, Vicentini R, Gazzinelli RT, Neves Rde O, Silva R, Astolfi-Filho S, Maciel TE, Urményi TP, Tadei WP, Camargo EP, de Vasconcelos AT - Nucleic Acids Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome.Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed.The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, Institute of Technology, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA, Laboratório de Bioinformática do Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Petrópolis, RJ 25651-075, Brasil, Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, UNESP -Universidade Estadual Paulista, SP 14884-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270901, Brasil, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA, Laboratório de Entomologia Médica IPEPATRO/FIOCRUZ, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brasil, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brasil, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 62042-280, Brasil, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Picos, PI 60740-000, Brasil, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA 66075-900, Brasil, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA, Informatics, The J. Craig Venter Institute, Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brasil, Departamento de Genética e Melhoramento, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG 36570-000, Brasil, Centro de Apoio Mul

ABSTRACT
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships of five dipteran species (adapted from [11]). The evolution relationship and divergence time of A. darlingi in comparison with species of the Anopheles, Aedes, Culex and Drosophila genera.
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gkt484-F1: Phylogenetic relationships of five dipteran species (adapted from [11]). The evolution relationship and divergence time of A. darlingi in comparison with species of the Anopheles, Aedes, Culex and Drosophila genera.

Mentions: In spite of the availability of published genomes for three other mosquito species [Anopheles gambiae (8), Aedes aegypti (9), Culex quinquefasciatus (10)], the medical and epidemiological significance of A. darlingi and its phylogenetic position support the importance of this study. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi and A. (Cellia) gambiae are considered to have diverged ∼100 mya (11) (Figure 1), suggesting that their most recent common ancestor lived before the geological split of western Gondwana (∼95 mya). This estimation is supported by the absence of the Cellia species in the New World and Nyssorhynchus in the Afro-Eurasian continents. The most ancient human colonization of the American continent is still a matter of discussion and is estimated to have occurred 30 000–10 000 years ago (12–16), indicating that A. darlingi and its ancestral species evolved in an environment devoid of humans or human ancestral species for several million years. Furthermore, European colonialists transferred Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the most prevalent malaria parasites, to the American continent in post-Colombian times (17,18). Therefore, interactions between neotropical malaria vectors and humans, and malaria parasites, are relatively recent. The evolutionary history of A. darlingi thus allows tackling basic and unanswered questions about vector–parasite and vector–human host interactions as well as about malaria parasite development within its vectors and the mosquito immune responses to the developing parasite.Figure 1.


The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

Marinotti O, Cerqueira GC, de Almeida LG, Ferro MI, Loreto EL, Zaha A, Teixeira SM, Wespiser AR, Almeida E Silva A, Schlindwein AD, Pacheco AC, Silva AL, Graveley BR, Walenz BP, Lima Bde A, Ribeiro CA, Nunes-Silva CG, de Carvalho CR, Soares CM, de Menezes CB, Matiolli C, Caffrey D, Araújo DA, de Oliveira DM, Golenbock D, Grisard EC, Fantinatti-Garboggini F, de Carvalho FM, Barcellos FG, Prosdocimi F, May G, Azevedo Junior GM, Guimarães GM, Goldman GH, Padilha IQ, Batista Jda S, Ferro JA, Ribeiro JM, Fietto JL, Dabbas KM, Cerdeira L, Agnez-Lima LF, Brocchi M, de Carvalho MO, Teixeira Mde M, Diniz Maia Mde M, Goldman MH, Cruz Schneider MP, Felipe MS, Hungria M, Nicolás MF, Pereira M, Montes MA, Cantão ME, Vincentz M, Rafael MS, Silverman N, Stoco PH, Souza RC, Vicentini R, Gazzinelli RT, Neves Rde O, Silva R, Astolfi-Filho S, Maciel TE, Urményi TP, Tadei WP, Camargo EP, de Vasconcelos AT - Nucleic Acids Res. (2013)

Phylogenetic relationships of five dipteran species (adapted from [11]). The evolution relationship and divergence time of A. darlingi in comparison with species of the Anopheles, Aedes, Culex and Drosophila genera.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3753621&req=5

gkt484-F1: Phylogenetic relationships of five dipteran species (adapted from [11]). The evolution relationship and divergence time of A. darlingi in comparison with species of the Anopheles, Aedes, Culex and Drosophila genera.
Mentions: In spite of the availability of published genomes for three other mosquito species [Anopheles gambiae (8), Aedes aegypti (9), Culex quinquefasciatus (10)], the medical and epidemiological significance of A. darlingi and its phylogenetic position support the importance of this study. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi and A. (Cellia) gambiae are considered to have diverged ∼100 mya (11) (Figure 1), suggesting that their most recent common ancestor lived before the geological split of western Gondwana (∼95 mya). This estimation is supported by the absence of the Cellia species in the New World and Nyssorhynchus in the Afro-Eurasian continents. The most ancient human colonization of the American continent is still a matter of discussion and is estimated to have occurred 30 000–10 000 years ago (12–16), indicating that A. darlingi and its ancestral species evolved in an environment devoid of humans or human ancestral species for several million years. Furthermore, European colonialists transferred Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the most prevalent malaria parasites, to the American continent in post-Colombian times (17,18). Therefore, interactions between neotropical malaria vectors and humans, and malaria parasites, are relatively recent. The evolutionary history of A. darlingi thus allows tackling basic and unanswered questions about vector–parasite and vector–human host interactions as well as about malaria parasite development within its vectors and the mosquito immune responses to the developing parasite.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome.Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed.The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, Institute of Technology, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA, Laboratório de Bioinformática do Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Petrópolis, RJ 25651-075, Brasil, Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, UNESP -Universidade Estadual Paulista, SP 14884-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270901, Brasil, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA, Laboratório de Entomologia Médica IPEPATRO/FIOCRUZ, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brasil, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brasil, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 62042-280, Brasil, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Picos, PI 60740-000, Brasil, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA 66075-900, Brasil, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA, Informatics, The J. Craig Venter Institute, Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brasil, Departamento de Genética e Melhoramento, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG 36570-000, Brasil, Centro de Apoio Mul

ABSTRACT
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus