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Growing poplars for research with and without mycorrhizas.

Müller A, Volmer K, Mishra-Knyrim M, Polle A - Front Plant Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: The basis of these investigations is the reproducible production of homogeneous plant material.Maintenance and plant preparation require different multiplication and rooting media.Growth and vitality of the trees in vitro and outdoors with and without ectomycorrhizas are reported.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Büsgen-Institut, Georg-August Universität Göttingen Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
During the last decades the importance of the genus Populus increased because the poplar genome has been sequenced and molecular tools for basic research have become available. Poplar species occur in different habitats and harbor large genetic variation, which can be exploited for economic applications and for increasing our knowledge on the basic molecular mechanisms of the woody life style. Poplars are, therefore, employed to unravel the molecular mechanisms of wood formation, stress tolerance, tree nutrition and interaction with other organisms such as pathogens or mycorrhiza. The basis of these investigations is the reproducible production of homogeneous plant material. In this method paper we describe techniques and growth conditions for the in vitro propagation of different poplar species (Populus × canescens, P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, and P. euphratica) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus) as well as for their co-cultivation for ectomycorrhizal synthesis. Maintenance and plant preparation require different multiplication and rooting media. Growth systems to cultivate poplars under axenic conditions in agar and sand cultures with and without mycorrhizal fungi are described. Transfer of the plants from in vitro to in situ conditions is critical and hardening is important to prevent high mortality. Growth and vitality of the trees in vitro and outdoors with and without ectomycorrhizas are reported.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots of P. × canescens. All pictures were taken 4 weeks after transfer into the Petri dishes. (A) Root of a control plant with dense root hairs, (B) Changes in root tip morphology induced by Paxillus involutus strain NAU with a weak mycelium and brownish spots, and (C) typical dichotomously branched root tips with dense mycelium of P. involutus strain MAJ.
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Figure 7: Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots of P. × canescens. All pictures were taken 4 weeks after transfer into the Petri dishes. (A) Root of a control plant with dense root hairs, (B) Changes in root tip morphology induced by Paxillus involutus strain NAU with a weak mycelium and brownish spots, and (C) typical dichotomously branched root tips with dense mycelium of P. involutus strain MAJ.

Mentions: We cultured poplars and ectomycorrhizal fungi in this system for up to 4 weeks (Figures 6A,B). Figure 6B shows hyphae extending from the fungal plug to the roots. Poplars inoculated with P. involutus strain MAJ, which forms a functional mycorrhiza, developed more leaves, taller shoots, and more biomass than poplars without ectomycorrhiza (Figures 6C–E). In contrast to the strain MAJ, the strain NAU is not able to form functional ectomycorrhizas (Gafur et al., 2004), but nevertheless stimulated biomass production (Figure 6D) and increased the survival rate of the plantlets (Figure 6F). A closer inspection of the roots showed very dense formation of root hairs for the non-mycorrhizal plants (Figure 7A), coverage with a thin yellowish mycelium of the roots of the NAU inoculated plants (Figure 7B) and the characteristic extramatrical mycelium around new root tips and typical dichotomously branched roots for the MAJ inoculated plants (Figure 7C).


Growing poplars for research with and without mycorrhizas.

Müller A, Volmer K, Mishra-Knyrim M, Polle A - Front Plant Sci (2013)

Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots of P. × canescens. All pictures were taken 4 weeks after transfer into the Petri dishes. (A) Root of a control plant with dense root hairs, (B) Changes in root tip morphology induced by Paxillus involutus strain NAU with a weak mycelium and brownish spots, and (C) typical dichotomously branched root tips with dense mycelium of P. involutus strain MAJ.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3753594&req=5

Figure 7: Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots of P. × canescens. All pictures were taken 4 weeks after transfer into the Petri dishes. (A) Root of a control plant with dense root hairs, (B) Changes in root tip morphology induced by Paxillus involutus strain NAU with a weak mycelium and brownish spots, and (C) typical dichotomously branched root tips with dense mycelium of P. involutus strain MAJ.
Mentions: We cultured poplars and ectomycorrhizal fungi in this system for up to 4 weeks (Figures 6A,B). Figure 6B shows hyphae extending from the fungal plug to the roots. Poplars inoculated with P. involutus strain MAJ, which forms a functional mycorrhiza, developed more leaves, taller shoots, and more biomass than poplars without ectomycorrhiza (Figures 6C–E). In contrast to the strain MAJ, the strain NAU is not able to form functional ectomycorrhizas (Gafur et al., 2004), but nevertheless stimulated biomass production (Figure 6D) and increased the survival rate of the plantlets (Figure 6F). A closer inspection of the roots showed very dense formation of root hairs for the non-mycorrhizal plants (Figure 7A), coverage with a thin yellowish mycelium of the roots of the NAU inoculated plants (Figure 7B) and the characteristic extramatrical mycelium around new root tips and typical dichotomously branched roots for the MAJ inoculated plants (Figure 7C).

Bottom Line: The basis of these investigations is the reproducible production of homogeneous plant material.Maintenance and plant preparation require different multiplication and rooting media.Growth and vitality of the trees in vitro and outdoors with and without ectomycorrhizas are reported.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Büsgen-Institut, Georg-August Universität Göttingen Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
During the last decades the importance of the genus Populus increased because the poplar genome has been sequenced and molecular tools for basic research have become available. Poplar species occur in different habitats and harbor large genetic variation, which can be exploited for economic applications and for increasing our knowledge on the basic molecular mechanisms of the woody life style. Poplars are, therefore, employed to unravel the molecular mechanisms of wood formation, stress tolerance, tree nutrition and interaction with other organisms such as pathogens or mycorrhiza. The basis of these investigations is the reproducible production of homogeneous plant material. In this method paper we describe techniques and growth conditions for the in vitro propagation of different poplar species (Populus × canescens, P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, and P. euphratica) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus) as well as for their co-cultivation for ectomycorrhizal synthesis. Maintenance and plant preparation require different multiplication and rooting media. Growth systems to cultivate poplars under axenic conditions in agar and sand cultures with and without mycorrhizal fungi are described. Transfer of the plants from in vitro to in situ conditions is critical and hardening is important to prevent high mortality. Growth and vitality of the trees in vitro and outdoors with and without ectomycorrhizas are reported.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus